Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How does proteins get tagged for lysosomes?
Dark round structures.
Varying sizes.

In the cis-face, mannose groups are phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated mannose groups are removed. The proteins with phosphorylated mannose groups are transferred to the lysosomes.
Higher number of lysosomes.
Cell boundary irregular.
Called "dust" cells.
What is the function of Basal Striations?
Increases cell surface area. They are foldings of the plasma membrane.
Stereocilia are found in...
Keratinized versus non-keratinized applies to these kind of cells...
Stratified squamous epithelium
What are melanocytes?
Melanocytes are derived from...
Melanocytes produce melanin.
Derived from neural crest cells.
Dome cells line...
Urinery tract (bladder, ureter etc..)
Endothelial cells are...
Mesothelial cells are...
Simple squamous
What are Glycocalyx? What is their function (they are associated with what)?
composed partially of glycoproteins of the plasma membrane and gastrointestinal secretions which become adsorbed to the microvilli.

Many of these glycoproteins are related to digestive and absorptive functions of the intestines. Microvilli of the colon appear to be larger than those of the small intestine
Acinar Cells
Few close together. They have darkly staines lysosomes (zymogen granules) draining into Central vein.
Associated with hepatocytes. They are linedby endothelium.
Central Vein

Portal Triad
Associated with Hepatocytes.

Portal triad - Hepatic artery, vein and bile duct. Differentiate bile duct by identifying simple cuboidal cells (instead of the simple squamous in capillaries)
Macrophage (Kupher cell, Dust cell)
Kupher Cell - Macrophage in liver.

DARK stained Lysosomes. Scattered mitochondria.
What is "space of disse"
the space between hepatocytes and endothelium of sinusoids.
What are distinguishing features of "plasma cells"?
Basophilic cytoplasm (so Hematoxylin stained - dark)
What is a limbus?
Highly vascularized corneo-scleral junction.
What are the connective tissue types for following structures?

Cornea- Stromal Cells
Cornea - Dense Reg CT
Sclear - Dense Reg CT
Choroid - Loose CT
Which kind of epithelium cells are associated with following structures?

Corneal Epithelium
Corneal Endothelium
Lens (ant part)
Outer Ear (cartilage)
EAM (epithelium)
Middle ear
Inner Ear
Corneal Epithelium - Non-keatinized stratified squamous cells

Corneal Endothelium - Simple squamous cells

Retina - Simple Cuboidal cells (retinal pigementaion layer)

Lens - Simple cuboidal cells

External Ear - Elastic Cartilage

EAM - Stratified Squamous

Middle Ear - Simple squamous

Inner Ear - Simple squamous
Name the two supporting cells in the neural retina? Where are their cell bodies located?
Muller Cells - They span the length of neural retina.

Astrocytes - In the never fiber layer, they support ganglion cell axons in this layer.
Name two cell types that help organize "receptor fields" in neural retina? Where are their cell bodies located?
Horizonal cells - Interconnect Rods and Cones with Bipolar cells. Their cell bodies are in Inner nuclear layer (along with bipolar cells)

Amacrine cells - Help interconnect axons of bipolar cells with dendrites of ganglion cells. They are also located in the inner nuclear layer.
Following drugs will inhibit protein synthesis in which type of organisms?


Eukaryotic organisms
Membrane fluidity is determined by...
Degree of unsaturation of the phospholipid and the length of the hydrophobic chain (# of carbon groups)
List the four types of plasma membrane movement?
Lateral diffusion
List two functions of cholesterol as plasma membrane lipid molecule.
1. Mechanical stability of membranes and
2. Help membrane maintain its fluidity.
On the ECM side, Integrin can bind to these molecules....

Connexons are closed in response to....
Hexammaric proteins that are involved in gap junctions.

Closed in response to Low pH and high Ca concentraion
IF are made up of..

Microtubules are made up of...

Microfilaments are made up of...
IF proteins (keratin, vimentin and neurofilaments) Rope like structure.

alpha and beta tubulin - 13 protofilaments. Alpha - Plus end and Beta is Minus end.

Actin filaments - G Actin to F Actin to two actins linked together to 3-D arrays.
Tonofilaments are made up of...
Intermediate filaments (part of the desmosome and hemidesmosome cell junction)
Nuclear Lamina is made up of this kind of filaments...
Intermediate filaments
Epidermolysis bullosa
Disorder associated with IFs. Defective keratin filaments (tonofilaments).

2 differences...
Nuclear Intermediate filaments

(1) 2-dimensional mesh-work arrangement (instead of rope-like arrangement)
(2) Higher turnover rate
List the motor proteins for following cytoskeleton filaments....

MT - Dynein, Kinesin
MF - Myosin I and II
Describe Cell Crawling...
Using Actin filaments.

Step 1 - Extension via Actin Polymerization

Step 2 - Attachment using integrin receptors

Step 3 - Contraction via myosin/actin interactions.
Generated after break up of RER. Due to thermodynamical properties of the membrane.
What is SRP?

Three active sites of SRP are..
Signal recognition particle -required for protein translocation into the ER.

Binding of signal peptide to SRP pauses translation.

(1) Signal peptide binding site
(2) SRP Receptor binding site
(3) Translational pause domain
2 Models for golgi transportation...
(1) Cisternal maturation
(2) Vesicular transport
What is the significance of Mannose-6-Phosphate.
Flags proteins for Lysosome digestion.
Early Endosome - Compartment that uncouples receptor from ligand (as in LDL-R endocytosis)
Pre-enzymes. They remain in cytoplasm until signal is received.
Peroxisome functions to...
Oxidize fatty acids
Metabolize alcohol
What is marker enzyme for peroxisome?
List three types of the cartilage
Elastic (Collagen II fibrils plus elastin fibers)
Hyaline (Collagen II Fibrils)
Fibrocartilage (Collage II fibrils plus Collagen I)
Hyaline Cartilage Matrix
(1) Fibers
(2) Ground substance
(1) Collagen II fibrils
(2) Proteoglycans, Hyaluronic acid and Glycoproteins.
What surrounds hyaling cartilage?
perichondrium (chondroblast layer)
1. Interstitial growth -

2. Appositional growth -
1. Division of cells within
the cartilage, with secretion of new matrix
around chondrocytes

2. Differentiation of cells
within perichondrium produces new matrix
at the surface; does not occur with fibrocartilage
Which cartilage type
(1) is not enveloped in perichondrium?
(2) is avascular
(1) Fibrocartilage

(2) Elastic, Hyaline, Fibrocartilage (Note: Bones are vascular)
a. Diaphysis
b. Epiphysis -
c. Marrow cavity -
d. Epiphyseal plate -
e. Periosteum -
f. Endosteum -
a. Diaphysis - long shaft composed of compact bone
and marrow cavity

b. Epiphysis - expanded end of long bone; covered with
compact bone and cartilage (articular surface);
spongy bone interior

c. Marrow cavity - hollow center of bone containing
hematopoetic tissue

d. Epiphyseal plate - hyaline cartilage plate between
epiphysis and diaphysis (growth plate)

e. Periosteum - osteoprogenitor cell layer and fibrous c.t.
layer; appositional growth of bone (osteoblasts) or
resorption (osteoclasts)

f. Endosteum - osteoblast and/or osteoclast lining of
marrow cavity and bone spicules
What are two components of bone matrix?
Organic - Tensile strengty (23%)
Collagen I fibers, Ground substance

Inorganic Component (77% - Compression strength)
Hydroxyapetite crystals
Bone localizing isotopes
Describe the two types of bone growth?
(1) Intramembranous - From osteroblasts

Osteoblast differentiate from mesenchyme >> lay down spicules >> periosteum continues bone deposition >> woven bone formed >> Lamellar bone formed.

Endochondral Model (cartilate to bone)
Hypertrophy of chondrocytes >> Matrix calcification >> Perichondrium changes to periosteum >> vascularization >> bone deposition on calcified matrix >> replacement of woven bone to lamellar bone.
stimulated bone resorption
Stimulated bone deposition
List 4 factors that impact bone density
(1)Blood calcium concentration
(2) Hormones (PTH, Calcitonin, Vitamin D, Estrogen)
(3) Mechanical Loading
(4) Drugs (corticosteroids)
Protein found in the lens fiber cells
Bony labyrinth is filled with...

Membranous labyrinth is filled with...

Endolymph is produced by
Stria Vascularis
Know the locations of following in ear...

Spiral ganglion
Spiral lumbus
Cells of Hensen
Basilar Membrane
Stria Vascularis
Spiral Limbus - Just under origination of tectorial membrane.

Cells of Hensen - Outer side of oustide hair cells

Basilar Membrane - Inf to organ of corti.

Stria Vascularis - On the surface opposite to tectorial membrane origination.
What are satellite cells?

Can cardiac muscle regenerate?

Can smooth muscle regenerate?
Undifferentiated myoblast stemcells.

Regenerate skeletal muscle when injured.


Yes - Smooth muscle regenrate via mitotic activity.
What are the three types of skeletal muscle fibers?
Red, White, Intermediate
Describe Red Skeletal muscle fibers?
Rich blood supply. Slow contration. Small nerve fibers. Takes long to fatigue. Many mitochondria. Rich in Mb.
Describe White skeletal muslce fibers.
Poor blood supply. Large nerve fibers. Fast but readily fatigued.
What is epimysium?


Dense Reg CT and surround muscle.

Less dense CT. Derived from epimysium and surrounds fascicles.

Endomysium surround each muscle cell. (including satelite cells)
What is the function of desmin and vimentin?
They hold myofilaments together and form myofiber. (Desmin and vimentin are IF proteins)
What is the function of desmin and vimentin?
They are Intermediate filament types that bind myofibrils together and form myofiber.
What is the function of alpha-actinin.
Alpha actinin binds Actin to Z disk in Skeletal muscle and to basal body in smooth muscle
What is a caveolae?
In smooth muscle, extracellular calcium enter the cells via caveolae. (Remember, smooth muscles do not have t-tubules)
Name four types of glial cells in CNS?

Name two types of supporting cells in PNS?
Protoplasmic astrocyte, fibrous astrocyte, microglia, oligodendrocytes

Schwann cells (invest nerve cell processes) and Satellite cells (surround nerve cell bodies).
What is a Nissle body?
highly developed, parallel stacks of ribosomestudded
membrane cisternae. Such material(along with free polysomes) is oftentimes
divided into clumps, referred to as Nissl
bodies, by intervening bundles of

Not seen in Axon and distal dendrites. (hence, these areas are not see on slides).
What are melanosomes?

What is deposited on melanosomes?
Melanosomes are only found in a very few types of nerve cells. These are the cells whose death leads to Parkinon’s Disease.

What is Lipofuscin?
Lipofuscin, also called “aging pigment”,
refers to a brown indigestible residue found
in lysosomes of older cells.
How is Dendrite organelle profile than that of cell body?
Dendrites do not have golgi apparetus. (Note: MTs in the dendrite but spines have MFs in it).
What is postsynaptic density?
The postsynaptic density probably represents a submembranous complex that
serves to localize and concentrate neurotransmitter receptors.
What is the function of oligodendrocytes?
produce CNS myelin. Restricted to white matter.
What is Schimd-Lanterman clefts?
Helical channels that connect inner and outer cytoplasm in a myelinated neuron.

Provide pathway for cytoplasmic nutrient transfer.
Microglia are derived from...



a. Smallest of the neuroglia b. Short, twisted processes w/ spikes

a. Phagocytic cells of CNS b. Proliferate and become active
– in areas of injury
Which supporting cell in the CNS are derived from macrophages?

Which cells are responsible for blood-brain barrier?

Which cells are responsible for myelination of axons in the CNS?


Which cells regulate ionin environment and limit cross walk?

Which cells are secreting cells in CNS?

Ependymal cells
Ependymal cells


a. Epithelium (cuboidal to columnar)b. Properties of fluid-transporting cells

a. Line fluid-filled cavities in the CNS (e.g., ventricles, central canal)b. Absorb or secrete (e.g. choroid plexus epithelium) fluid
What changes are made to proteins in the Golgi?
cis face - Phosphorylation
middle face - Removal of mannose
trans face - addition of galactose and sialic acid.
Receptor mediated endocytosis required this coat...
clathrin coated vesicles.
Receptor and ligand (after endocytosis) are uncoupled in this compartments....
Early Endosome
Which proteins are synthesized by free ribosomes? And which by RER?
free ribosomes - cytosolic proteins.

RER - Secretory, transmembrane and lysosomal.
What are the four basic types of tissues in the body>
Connective tissue
Nervous Tissue
What is the charge on GAGs and what is the exception to it?
Negative charge (all sulfates). Hyaluronic acid does not have negative charge.
Mast Cells
(1) Their structure
(2) It secretes
(3) Location
(1) Dark stained. Many zymogen granules ready to be secreted.

(2) Heparin and Histamine

(3) Located close to blood vessels. Mostly in the Dense Irregular CT.
Which kind of epithelium lines eustachian tube?
Simple columnar or PS columnar ciliated.
Basal Bodies in the epithelial cells are associated with....
Microtubules, which give rise to cilia. Basal bodies have the same arrangement as centrioles.
Terminal web...
Associated with actin filaments, which give rise to stereocilia and microvilli.
Kinocilim is made up of...

Stereocilia is made up of...
MTs. Has basal body.

Actin filaments. Terminal web is associated with it.
Modiolus is...
the bony axis around which scalea vest, scalae media, scalae tympany are wound.
Three border of scalae media are....
Basally - Basilar membrane
Apically - Resinner's membrane
Laterally - Stria Vascularis
Organ corti is bound by..
Reticular lemina - superiorly
Basilar lamin - inferiorly
is a protein found in the outer hair cells of cohlea (type II hair cells).

Contracts in response to depolarization. Release Cl and contracts.
Phalangeal cells...
Like phalanges, hold hair cells.
Tectorial membrane is secreted by...
Interdental cells (they lie within spiral cells - on the inside of cell)
Stria vascularis has these cell types...
Stratified epithelium
Marginal cells >> intermediate cells >> basal cells.

Marginal cells provided ion pumping force to form endolymph.
Periodic Acid Schaff stain.
Binds to carbohydrates.
Hematoxylin stain..
Binds to tissue components with net negative charges.
Proteins bind to...
eosin. (eosin binds to + charges)
Nucleic acid binds to...
Hematoxylin stain (which has + charge die molecules)