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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where are ribosomes synthesized?
nucleolus
What are ribosomes composed of?
protein and rRNA
Which proteins do free ribosomes make?
proteins destined for the cytoplasm
Which proteins do bound ribosomes make?
proteins destined for insertion into plasma membranes or secretion outside of the cell
What is the smooth ER in charge of?
lipid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons
What is the rough ER in charge of?
protein synthesis
What is the Golgi bodies primary obligation?
modification and sorting center for proteins
-here glycosylation can take place-sugars are added
Peroxisome
-contain oxidative enzymes that catalyze reactions were hydrogen peroxide is produced and degraded
-break down fats and alcohol
T/F

Pancreatic cells have a large number of ribosomes.
T
Where are ribosomes synthesized?
nucleolus
What are ribosomes composed of?
protein and rRNA
Which proteins do free ribosomes make?
proteins destined for the cytoplasm
Which proteins do bound ribosomes make?
proteins destined for insertion into plasma membranes or secretion outside of the cell
What is the smooth ER in charge of?
lipid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons
What is the rough ER in charge of?
protein synthesis
What is the Golgi bodies primary obligation?
modification and sorting center for proteins
-here glycosylation can take place-sugars are added
Peroxisome
-contain oxidative enzymes that catalyze reactions were hydrogen peroxide is produced and degraded
-break down fats and alcohol
T/F

Pancreatic cells have a large number of ribosomes.
T
What are the primary functions of the cytoskeleton?
-maintains cell framework
-aids in cell movement and organelle movement
What three types of protein filaments make up the cytoskeleton?
microfilaments
intermediate filaments
microtubules
What are microfilaments made of?
intertwined strands of actin

(they can also contain mysosin if involved with muscle contraction)
What are microtubules made of?
hollow rods composed of tubulin
What are microtubules in charge of?
movement of organelles and chromosomes, maintenence of cell shape and motility
T/F

Centrioles are only found in animal cells?
T
What do centrioles do?
they are microtubule organizing centers during that anchor microtubues during mitosis
The "9+2 pattern" for microtubules is found in which structures?
cilia and flagella
What lines the respiratory tract to move mucous up to the mouth for expulsion?
cilia
How do cilia move?
whip-like fashion
How do flagella move?
wave-like fashion
Tight juctions
form an impermeable barrier between cell membranes

(tight juctions between intestines and blood stream)
How are epithelial cells attatched to skin?
by desmosomes

(a type of anchoring junction)
What proteins form gap junctions?
connexins
What do gap juctions provide?
connections between the cytoplasms between cells
In the heart, what do ions pass through to allow rhythmic, coordinated contractions of the heart muscle?
gap junctions
Magnification
increase in apparent size of an object
Resolution
differentiation of two closely situated objects
What does the diaphragm of a light microscope do?
controls the amount of light passing through the specimen
Why does the dye hematoxylin reveal the distribution of DNA and RNA?
because of its affinity for negatively charged objects
Phase contrast microscope
uses differences in refractive index to produce contrast between cellular structures
(this method does not kill specimen)
Electron microscope
uses beam of electrons to allow a thousandfold higher magnification than is possible with light microscopy

(oftentimes specimen are stained with solutions of heavy metal)
Autoradiography
uses radioactive molecules to trace and identify cell structures and biochemical activity
Are bacteria and cyanobacteria both prokaryotes?
yes
Do bacteria contain a cell wall or a cell membrane?
both
Are centrioles found in animal or plant cells?
animal cells
Which is bigger a vacuole or a vessicle?
vacuole
What type of enzymes do lysosomes contain?
hydrolytic enzymes
Autolysis
self-killing with hydrolytic enzymes
Microbodies

-And name two types of them?
-membrane-bound organelles specialized as containers for metabolic reactions

-peroxisomes and glyoxysomes
Peroxisomes
contain oxidative enzymes that catalyze a class of reactions in which hydrogen peroxide is produced by the transfer of hydrogen from a substrate to oxygen
What type of microbody is used by the liver to detoxify compounds harmful to the body?
peroxisomes
What does a seedling use to convert fats into sugars until it is mature enough to produce its own supply of sugars by photosynthesis?
glyoxysomes
What does the outer membrane of the mitochondria do?
smooth acting as a sieve allowing molecules through on the basis of size
What do you call the area between the inner an douter membranes of the mitochondria?
intermembrane space
Describe the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
-has many convolutions called cristae
-high protein content that includes the proteins of the electron transport chain
What do you call the area bounded by the inner mitochondrial membrane?
mitochondrial matrix (the place where a lot of cellular respiration takes place)
What type of replication do mitochondria undergo?
binary fission