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77 Cards in this Set

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Hydrophilic
molecules readily soluble in water;
water-loving
Hydrophobic
molecules poorly soluble in water;
water-fearing
Glycosidic bond
connects monosaccharides into dimers and trimers
Oligosaccharides
a short polymer of only a few sugars
Polysaccharides
a polymer containg up to millions of nucleotides
Glyceraldehyde
triose
intermediate in glycolysis
Dihyroxyacetone
triose
intermediate in glycolysis
Ribose
pentose
RNA
2'deoxyribose
pentose
DNA
Glucose
hexose
Fructose
hexose
Lactose
disaccharides
mammals
milk sugar
Maltose
dissacharide
Sucrose
disaccharide
Cellubiose
disaccharide
breakdown product of cellulose
Glycogen
polysaccharide
animal energy storage
Starch
polysaccharide
plant energy storage
Cellulose
polysaccharide
plant structural fiber
Functions of Carbohydrates
energy source
energy storage molecule
structural components
cell signaling molecules
cell to cell recognition
Lipids
water-insoluble molecules
nonpolar
hydrophobic
soluble in weakly polar or non polar sovents
Phospholipid
glycerol
polar head groups
two nonpolar tails
Amphipathic
molecule with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Phosphatidic acid
glycerol+phosphate+2 fatty acids
Phosphatidlyethanolamine
glycerol+phosphate+2 fatty acids+ethanolamine
Phosphatidlycholine
glycerol+phosphate+2 fatty acids+choline
Phosphatidlyserine
glycerol+phosphate+2 fatty acids+serine
Phosphatidlylinositol
glycerol+phosphate+2 fatty acids+inositol
Sphingomyelin
serine+phosphate+two fatty acids+choline
Fatty acid
hydrocarbon chain containing 16 to 18 carbons and a carboxyl group (acid group)
Saturated fatty acid
hydrocarbon chain contains no double bonds
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
hydrocarbon chain with one or mroe double bonds
Palmitate
saturate 16 carbon fatty acid
Stearate
saturated 18 carbon fatty acid
Oleate
unsaturated 18 carbon fatty acid with double bond between Carbon 9 and 10
Glycolipids
serine with 2 fatty acids
component of cell membranes
Triacylglycerol
glycerol with 3 fatty acids;
accumulate as fat droplets in cytoplasm
energy storge molecule;
Sterols
multi-ring, nonpolar structure with a hydroxyl;
component of cell membrane;
precursors to steroid hormones
Steroid hormones
serve to transmit signals througout the body
Functions of lipids
make up cell membranes;
energy storage;
contribute to cell signaling by making steroid hormones
Nucleic Acids
linear, non-branched polymers of nucleotides
RNA
ribonucleic acid
DNA
2'deoxyribosenucleic acid
Nucleotide
pentose sugar+phosphate groups+flat, heterocyclic, nitrogenous bases
Purine bases
double ring;
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Pyrimidine bases
single ring;
Cytosine (C)
Thamine (T) DNA only
Uracil (U) RNA only
Primary Structure
linear sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure
hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl oxygen and nitrogen hydrogen of the peptide chain; contains alpha helix and beta sheets
Tertiary Structure
folding of polypeptide chain as a result of interactions between R-groups
Quaternary Structure
interaction of different polypeptide chains to form a functional protein
Functions of Proteins
enzymatic catalsis;
transport and storage;
mechanical support;
coordinate motion;
generate and transmission of nerve impulses;
control of growth and differentiation;
immune protection
Catalysts
increase reaction rates;
lower the energy of activation by aiding the formation of the transition state; do not change the equilibrium of the reaction; are not consumed or permanently altered by the reaction
Active site
the physical location of binding of the substrate and the site of chemical reation
Δ G < 0
reaction is spontaneous and proceeds as written; exergonic
Δ G > 0
reaction will not proceed as written; spontaneously proceeds in reverse order; endergonic
Exergonic
energy is given off
Endergonic
Energy is taken in or required
Chymotrypsin
breaks the peptide bond of a protein next to the amino aicds W and P;
serine protease;
active site contatins catalytically active amino acids: his57, asp102, and ser195
Coenzyme
low molecular weight organic molecule, loosely bound to a protein
Prosthetic group
small organic molecule, usually covalently bound to the enzyme
Cofactor
small organic or inorganic molecule that attaches to an enzyme
Metabolism
all chemical reactions in the cell
Catabolism
metabolic reaction that oxidizes organic compunds to provide energy
Anabolism
metabolic reaction involved in synthesis of biomolecules from simple precursors
Kinase
transfer of a phosphate group from one molecule(ATP) to another molecule
Isomerase
converts molecule to another isomer;
rearranges atoms in the molecule without loss or gain of atoms
Mutase
shifts phosphate groups from one carbon to another carbon in the SAME molecule
Dehydrogenase
involves NADH or FADH;
oxidation/reduction reaction
Aldolase
cleaves C-C bond
Where does glycolysis occur?
in the cytosol
Where does pyruvate oxidation occur?
mitochondria
Where does citric acid cycle or Kreb's cycle occur?
mitochondria
Where does the electron transfer chain occur?
in the mitochondria inner membrane
Where does the catabolism of fatty acids occur?
in the matrix of the mitochondria
Glycogenesis
production of free sugar by liver for export to blood;
synthesis of sugar from nonsugar
Where does translation occurr?
In cytoplasm
Integral membrane proteins
transmembrane;
span the lipid bilayer
Peripheral membrane proteins
attached to one side of membrane