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31 Cards in this Set

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Cell Theory
All organisms consist of one or more cell.
The cell is the basic structure for all organisms.
All cells arise only from preexisting cells.
Nucleus
Nerve center of the cell;
Contains genetic material;
Site of DNA replication and RNA synthesis
Mitochondria
Site of oxidative metabolism;
Generates most of the cellular ATP by catabolizing organic compounds;
Site of pyruvate oxidation, Kreb's cycle, and electron transport
Chloroplasts
Specialized type of plastid;
Found in green plants and algae;
Site of photosynthesis
Lysosome
Specialized membrane bound metablolic compartment for digestion of macromolecules
Perioxisomes
Specialized membrane bound metabolic compartment for digestion of macromolecules
Vacuole
Specialized membrane compartment found in plants
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Extensive network of intercellular membranes extending throughout cytoplasm from outer layer of nuclear envelope;
Functions to transport proteins synthesized by bound ribosomes;
Site of lipid synthesis
Rough ER
ER containing ribosomes
Smooth ER
ER that does not contain ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for transport;
Site of (some) lipid synthesis
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments extending throughout cytoplasm;
Provides structural framework and movement within the cell and of entire cell or organism
Three Types of Cytoskeleton
Actin filaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules
Ribosome
Located in the cytoplasm
Site of protein synthesis (translation);
Found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Cytoplasm
Intracellular contents (solid and liquid) between the nucleus and plasma membrane
Cytosol
Fluid portion of the cytoplasm found outside the membrane-bound organelles
Centrioles
Cylinder shaped structure consisting of nine triplets of microtubules in the centrosomes of most animal cells
Centrosome
microtubule-organizing center in animal cells
Nuclear envelope
barrier separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm;
consists of a double membrane, nuclear lamina, and nuclear pore complex
Plasma membrane
Phospholipid bilayer with associated proteins that surrounds the cell
Prebiotic
Earth before life
E.Coli
Prokarytoic;
4.6 billion base pairs;
4000 genes;
Easy to grow;
Used in biochem and molecular biology
Saccharomyces cereisiae (Yeast)
Unicellular eukaryote;
12 million base pairs
16 linear chromosomes;
6000 genes;
Easy to grow;
Simple modle of eukaryotic organism
Dicytostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
Two life forms: unicellular ameba and slug up to 100,000;
70 million base pairs
7 linear chromsomes
Model for cell signaling, cell to cell interaction, and cell movement
Caenohabditis elegans (Nematode)
Multicellular eukaryote;
959 somatic cells;
1000-2000 germ cells;
97 million base pairs;
6 linear chromosomes;
19,0000 genes;
Easy to grow;
Drosophila melanogaster (Fuit fly)
Mulitcellular eukaryote
180 billion bas pairs;
4 linear chromosomes;
Easy to grow;
Model for genetics, especially linkage and differentiation and development
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mustard family)
Multicellular ekukaryote
125 million base pairs;
5 linear chromosomes;
Easy to grow;
Smallest genome of a flowering plant;
Plant development and flowering
Xenopus laevis (Toad)
Multicellular organism;
3 billion base pairs
18 linear chromosomes
Study of development, control, differentiation, and embryonic cell division
Zebrafish
Multicellular eukaryote;
Billion base pairs;
linear chromosomes;
Vertebrate development
Mouse
Multicellular eukarytote
3 billion base pairs
20 linear chromosomes
Mammalian genetics and development
Homo sapiens (Humans)
Multicellular eukaryote;
3 billion base pairs
23 linear chromosomes;
35,000 genes