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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where are fibroblasts found?
in dermis (layer right below skin)
what cell type is involved in creating separation between inside and outside
epithelial cells
these calcium binding molecules are involved in disrupting cell-to-cell contacts during creation of a primary culture
Ca++ chelators
equation used to determine resolution of a light microscope
what does the "D" in the light microscope equation stand for, and do we want to increase or decrease it?
D = resolution limit; want to minimize
what does "N" in light microscope equation stand for, and do we want ot increase or decrease it?
N = refractive index of medium; want to maximize it
what does α in light microscope equation stand for and do we want to increase or decrease it?
α = angular aperature (size of cone of light); want to maximize
what three things can we do to optimize D?
1. decrease wavelength
2. increase N
3. increase α
what secondary antibody fluoresces blue to green?
what secondary antibody fluoresces green to red?
what secondary antibody fluoresces UV to blue?
what is DAPI used for?
to find the nucleus; it interpolates between DNA bases
what is the phenomenon of overlapping fluorescent markers (used to measure spatial proximity of two molecules)?
Fluoresence Resonance Energy Transfer
what is the type of microscopy that involves fancy optics to look at thick specimens?
confocal microscopy
what is the type of microscopy that involves using a computer algorithm to view thick specimens?
deconvolution microscopy
what is the process of viewing an untreated sample with an electron microscope?
what is the genetic tool used to selectively inactivate a gene or protein of interest?
Cre/loxP (cre enzyme and loxP recognition sites)
what is the innate cellular defense mechanism that is exploited by cell biologists to knockdown genes?
what is the detergent involved in gel analysis and what does it do?
SDS = sodium dodecylsulfate; this unfolds proteins and binds negative charges to them proportional to their length
name and describe the system used to trace the path of a particular protein through a cellular process
pulse-chase system; grow cells in supply of radioactively labeled precursor molecules for short period of time (pulse) then replace with unlabeled supply (chase); imaging cells at different times after this can help trace molecules/proteins through cell
what are nuclear lamins?
a type of intermediate filament (type V) found in all cells; line nuclear membrane
what are the intermediate filaments found in epithelial cells called?
what are the intermediate filaments found in neurons called?
what are the intermediate filaments found in muscle cells called?
what are the intermediate filaments found in fibroblasts called
what is the contractile ring made of?
what is the name of the protein fragment used to visualize polarity of actin filaments?
myosin II - s1
2 functions of the ARP 2/3 protein
1. nucleates actin filaments from the - end
2. binds to second filament at 70° angle; used in growth of branched networks
what does thymosin do?
binds free actin subunits
what does profilin do?
binds free actin subunits
what family of myosin is - end directed?
myosin VI
what is the contractile unit of muscle called?
name of boundary between sarcomeres
+ end binding protein on actin
actin binding protein that crosslinks actin filaments into parallel arrays
binds to - ends of already-stabilized actin filaments
storage for Ca++
sarcoplasmic reticulum
binds along sides of actin filaments and prevents interactions with other proteins
calcium binding protein that serves as switch for muscle contraction; name of protein and of subunit
protein = troponin complex
subunit = TnC
leading edge
what forms lamellipodia?
branched network of actin
what are the proteins found at the contact points between lamellipodia and the cell substrate?
what forms filopodia?
actin organized into parallel arrays
two proteins that help with crosslinking of actin to form filopodia
villin and fimbrin
stress fibers used to attach to substrate
contractile bundles
actin structure characterized by flexible stabilization of junctures between actin filaments
protein that stabilizes junctures of actin gel
nucleates microtubules from - end
protenacious material found at MTOC
peri-centriole matter
structure found at base of flagella and cilia
basal body
bind along sides of microtubules, stabilizing against disassembly and mediating interactions; suppress catastrophes
catastrophins are also known as?
Kin-M motors
bind at + end of microtubules
what do +TiPS do?
stabilize; can slow growth or shrinkage, inhibit catastrophes or promote rescues
cleavage of Tyr found at C-terminus of tubulin, leaving Glu
detyrosination; correlates with age
severing protein for mts
mt associated motor protein; responsible for movement of axoneme doublet mts and transport toward - end of cytoplasmic microtubules
microtubule associated motor protein that has various versions depending on where motor sequence is found in protein
motors responsible for + end transport in microtubules
Rho protein family does what?
group of monomeric GTPases involved in transmittance of external signals for nucleation of actin filaments
most actin is found where in cell?
near periphery of cell; near cell membrane
protein that binds to ARP complex, causing increase in nucleation
WASp protein
Ca2+ dependent binding protein that cuts up actin filaments
drug that stabilizes actin filament by binding multiple subunits along length of formed filament
drug that stabilize microtubule by binding along length of formed filament
drug that binds free actin subunits
two drugs that bind free microtubule subunits
nocodazole and colchicine
+ end capping drug that may be involved in destabilization of actin filaments
two proteins involved in forming actin gels
spectrin and filamin
protein that helps with crosslinking in microvilli