• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/57

Click to flip

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The resulting mass from new growth from uncontrolled or autonomous proliferation is called
NEOPLASM

benign or malignant
Originally result of swelling due to inflammation.

May be also used interchangeably with neoplasm
Tumor
True or False

BENIGN NEOPLASMS/TUMORS are slow growing and--

do NOT invade surrounding tissues

do NOT metastasize (travel)
True
Cancer (general term for all MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS) are characterized by what 2 things?
INVADE surrounding tissue

DO metastasize (travel to other organs)
NON-neoplastic change in type of tissue at a site of injury or irritation

ex: squamous replaces glandular epithelium
Metaplasia
NEOPLASTIC mutations which result abnormal features in some but not all original or metaplastic so that there is a mixture of normal and abnormal cells
Dysplasia
NEOPLASTIC mutation which result in replacement of all the normal epithelial cells by abnormal cells WITHOUT INVASION THROUGH THE BASEMENT MEMBRANE!!!
Carcinoma - in-situ
Neoplastic mutation which results in INVASION through the basement membrane and/or metastases
Carcinoma
What are the sequential steps in aggressiveness of neoplasia
metaplasia (non-neoplastic)

dysplasia

carcinoma-in-situ

carcinoma
neoplasm that has little or no similarity to original tissue / poorly differentiated
anaplastic
What are the Grades of Neoplasm?
Low grade (well differentiated)

Intermediate grade (moderately differentiated)

High grade (anaplastic)
True or False

Benign neoplasm are almost always well differentiated, are not aggressive and thus are very rarely graded.
True
True or False

Malignant neoplasm's behavior frequently predicted by its grade.

The uglier and less like its tissue of origin that it appears, usually the worse it behaves.
True
How are the Grade or degree of lack of differentiation or anaplasia is determined by what 6 things?
cellular and nuclear PLEOMORPHISM

Hyperchromatic staining or Hyperchromasia

Increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio

Prominent nucleolus or nucleoli

increased mitotic activity

disorganized growth
Tumor growth measured by the ? which is the time required for the tumor to ?
Doubling Time

double in size


HIGHER GRADE = FASTER GROWTH = SHORTER DOUBLING TIME
True or False

Cancer cells usually have a faster cell cycle time than normal cells. This is why they grow so fast.
FALSE

cancer cells usually have a normal cell cycle time --

the reason why they grow is because cancer cells are capable of going through the cell cycle MULTIPLE TIMES!!!!
? is the description of the extent of spread of a neoplasm
Stage

low stage = tumor is limited to site of origin

high stage = spreads beyond the site origin to other organs
TNM cancer staging system
T = for size or local extent of primary tumor

N = number and distribution of lymph node metastases

M = presence and extent of distant metastases
What are the membrane attachment sites under the plasma membrane?
Catenins
Unbound or Free catenins induce ?
Cellular Proliferation
for cell to cell adhesion--

? anchors through cells plasma membranes to Catenins (under the plasma membrane)
Epithelial (E) Cadhedrin
? bind to basement membrane (BM) and/or matrix proteins such as LAMININ and FIBRONECTINS
Integrins
? are transmembrane molecules for signal conduction and initiate penetration of basement membrane by secretion of proteolytic enzymes
Integrins
What are the proteinases found in malignant cells that are released to break through the basement membrane
serine proteinase

collagenases

cystein proteinase
growth of fibrous tissue around damaged tissue or around malignancies
Desmoplastic Reaction
What type of enzyme is required for penetration of fibrous stroma by tumor cells?
Type I collagenase


(type IV is seen in the basement membrane)
migration of tumor cells into degraded zone of ECM is caused by ? which causes PSEUDOPODIA of tumor cells rich in receptors for ? and ?
Autocrine Motile Factor (AMF)

--receptors for laminin
--receptors for fibrinectin
What are the most important angiogenic factors are?

(2)
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VGEF)


Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF)
What are normal ANTI-ANGIOGENIC factors that inhibit angiogenic factors?
THROMBOSPONDIN - 1
What is the WALBURG EFFECT?
most tumor cell DO NOT use mitochondria for glycolysis

but DO USE DIRECT GLYCOLYSIS (2 ATP from 1 glucose)

therefore tumor cells take up MORE glucose than normal cells
How would you detect/locate metasteses of cancer?
use a CT/PET scan to detect uptake of radioactive labelled glucose [FLUDEOXYGLUCOSE (18F)] to detect tumors
Benign tumor of glandular or ductal epithelium
adenoma
malignant tumor derived from glandular or ductal epithelium but these neoplasms are specific to a particular anatomic site
adenocarcinoma
benign form of mesenchymal neoplasm

malignant form end with ?
-oma = benign

-malignant = sarcoma+
malignancies of epithelial cells (cells with basement membranes) are called ?
CARCINOMA
sarcomas typically spread by ?
blood (hematogenously)
what is benign smooth muscle called?

Malignant?
leiomyOMA

leiomyoSARCOMA
skeletal muscle benign


malignant?
rhabdomyOMA


rhabdomyoSARCOMA
blood vessels benign


malignant?
hemangiOMA


angioSARCOMA
Nerve sheath benign?


malignant?
schwannoma


malignant schwannoma
nerve cells benign


malignant?
neuroma, ganglioma


neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma
REMEMBER

neoplasms of the nervous system - derived from neuroectoderm

malignant = -OMA
REMEMBER

neoplasms of the nervous system - derived from neuroectoderm

malignant = -OMA
True or False

Germ cell neoplasms arise from pleuripotent stem cells which differentiate into cell lines of MORE THAN ONE DERMAL (ecto/meso/endo) origin an thus contain one or more types of mature tissues.
True
germ cell without differentiation

malignant male
malignant females
seminoma (males)


dysgerminoma (females)
placenta benign


malignant
hydatidiform mole


choriocarcinoma
mature tissues (mixture of brain, gut, skin, and/or lung)

benign


malignant
mature teratoma


immature teratoma
malignant neoplasms of MYELOID or LYMPHOID hematopoietic stem cells
Leukemia
? leukemia is composed of very IMMATURE cells (blasts) and RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE (kills fast).
acute leukemia
? leukemia is composed of mature cells and clinical course is usually indolent or prolonged.
chronic leukemia
? is the malignancies of lymphocytes which form solid tissue masses and usually do not spill over into the peripheral blood although they frequently involve the bone marrow
lymphoma
what is the classic diagnostic feature of HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA?
Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells
-giant usually multinucleated cells with large red nucleoli
True or False

Hodgkin's lymphoma is ALWAYS malignant
true
If a patient has a depression of B-cell types

what type of Lymphoma do they have?
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
B or T lymphocyte depression


Hodgkin's lymphoma
T lymphocyte depression
Which type of lymphoma is primarily found in lymph nodes?
Hodgkin's lymphoma



--Non-Hodgkins lymphoma can have a primary site other than lymph nodes such as oropharynx, gut, bone marrow, or skin
? is malignant proliferation of plasma cells (transformed B cells)
Multiple myeloma
Multiple Myeloma are usually found ?
usually remains in the BONE MARROW

--cause lytic lesions (holes) in the bones
what are BENCE-JONES PROTEINS?
Multiple Myeloma

--plasma cells secrete monoclonal kappa or lambda chains that are detected in the urine

SEEN IN AMYLOIDOSIS of the AL type