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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the Major Inflammatory products of the complement system?
C3a

C3b

C5a
What causes increased vascular permeability by way of HISTAMINE release?
C3a

C5a
What activates WBC and increases avidity (affinity) of WBC INTEGRIN molecules
C5a
What upregulates LIPOXYGENASE PATHWAY of arachidonic acid metabolism?
C5a
What complement metabolite causes CHEMOTAXIS?
C5a
What complement metabolite causes OPONIZATION?
C3b
What are the actions of KALLIKREINS?
Activates

BRADYKININ
FACTOR XII
PLASMIN
C5 to C5a
What are the actions of BRADYKININ?
INCREASED vascular permeability

smooth muscle CONTRACTION

produces PAIN
The COAGULATION SYSTEM (intrinsic pathway) is activated by ?

--products active in mediating inflammation include
Factor XII
What are the actions of THROMBIN?
Serotonin released from platelets

enhanced WBC adhesion

FIBROBLAST proliferation
Fibrinopeptides are created when ? changes FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN
Thrombin
what are the actions of FIBRINOPEPTIDES
increase VASCULAR PERMEABILITY

chemotaxis
What are the actions of Factor Xa
increase Vascular permeability
Fibrinolytic System is activated by ?

products active in mediating inflammation include ? and ?
Kallikrein


--> PLASMIN
--> Fibrin Split Products
What is the actions of PLASMIN?
Cleaves C3 to C3a

cleaves FIBRIN to produce FIBRIN SPLIT PRODUCTS

activate FACTOR XII

activate TGF-B (wound healing)
What are the actions of FIBRIN SPLIT PRODUCTS (from breakdown of fibrin during fibrinolysis) ?
Vascular Permeability
What causes FIBRIN to be broken down FIBRIN SPLIT PRODUCTS?
Plasmin
What pre-formed Vasoactive amines are stored in granules?
Histamine

Serotonin
What are the actions of VASOACTIVE AMINES?

Histamine
Serotonin
Vasodilation of arterioles (constricts large arteries)

Increase vascular permeability of venules
What cell has vasoactive amines --Histamine and Serotonin in pre-formed granules?
Platelets
Release of HISTAMINE from mast cells due to

--Immune Reactions

--Complement Fragments

--Cytokines
immune reactions => IgE receptors

complement fragments => C3a and C5a

cytokines => IL-1 and IL-8
Release of vasoactive amines from PLATELETS are stimulated by?
Throbin

contact with COLLAGEN

PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR (mast cells)
What prevents LYSOSOMAL PROTEASES from neutrophils and monocytes from staying active / keeps them in check ?
ALPHA - 1 - ANTI-TRYPSIN

plasma antiproteases
PHOSPHOLIPASES are INHIBITIED from making Arachidonic Acid Metabolites by ?

what stimulates PHOSPHOLIPASES?
Corticosteroids


Platelet Activating Factor
What is the Arachidonic Acid Metabolite that causes--

Pain, Fever, and Vasodilation?

Vascular permeability?

Chemotaxis?
Prostaglandin (pain, fever, and vasodilation)

Leukotrines (vascular permeability)

Leukotrine B4 (chemotaxis)
Which of the two pathways in arachidonic acid metabolites is involved with PROSTGLANDIN and THROMBOXANE synthesis?
Cyclooxygenase Pathway
Which of the two pathways in arachidonic acid metabolites is involved with LEUKOTRINE synthesis?
Lipoxygenase pathway
? inhibit the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and production of Prostaglandins
Non-Steroidal Anti- Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID)
What causes VASCULAR PERMEABILITY and VASODILATION and "PRIMES" WBCs?
Platelet Activating Factor
Which Nitric Oxide synthetase is induced when activated by cytokines such as TNF-α and TNF-γ
iNOS (macrophages)
What is the role of the neuropeptide SUBSTANCE P?
binds to receptor on target cell (especially lungs and GI tract)

activation of ARACHIDONIC ACID PATHWAY

powerful mediator of INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY
During leukocyte diapedisis

endothelial cells first produce ? which is considered to be "loose" (tethering / rolling) adhesion with WBCs
Selectins
When WBCs and Endothelial cells have FIRM ADHESION (latching)

what proteins are involved?
ICAMs

Integrins

associated with LEUKOCYTE and ENDOTHELIAL activation
Adhesion stimulation is mediated by ? for Leukocyte adhesion molecules
C5a
Chemotactic Complement Fragments
Adhesion stimulation is mediated by ? for ENDOTHELIAL Cell adhesion molecules
IL - 1
Chemotactic agents bind to the leukocyte receptor site which triggers the ? in the cytoplasm (FILAMIN, GELSOLIN, PROFILIN, CALMODULIN)

motility is by action of a PSEUDOPOD (LAMELLIPOD)
actin regulating elements

causes actin-myosin contraction
What are the Chemotactic Agents?
N-formylated peptides (from bacteria)

C5a

Leukotrine B4 (arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils and macrophages)

IL-8 <<<<
REMEMBER

IL-1 and TNF-alpha ARE NOT CHEMOKINES!!

IL-8 IS A CHEMOKINE!
REMEMBER

IL-1 and TNF-alpha ARE NOT CHEMOKINES!!

IL-8 IS A CHEMOKINE!
What are the 3 Leukocyte Activators?
TNF- Alpha

C5a

Platelet Activating Factor 3
What are the 2 major Opsonins?
Fc Fragment of IgG


C3b, C3bi
What are the primary cytokines involved with FEVER?
IL-1

TNF - alpha
IL-1 stimulates ? synthesis in the HYPOTHALAMUS which alters the body temperature set-point.

TNF alpha?
PROSTAGLANDIN


TNF acts by stimulating release of IL-1 and on the hypothalamus directly
Acute Phase Protein production are produced by the ?

mediated by action of ? on ?
Liver

IL-6 on hepatocytes


acute phase proteins
-c reactive protein (enhance opsonization)
-Serum Amyloid A
-Complement
-Coagulation Factors (fibrinogen)
How does one tell when there is an INCREASE of ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS?
results in increase in ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR)
Pain is mediated by ? and ?
Prostaglandins

Bradykinin