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23 Cards in this Set

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The reactions of VASCULARIZED living tissue to injury, characterized by movement of fluid and leukocytes from the blood into the extravascular space.
Inflammation
What is the MAIN indicator of Acute Inflammation?
NEUTROPHILS

in protein-rich exudates (FIBRIN etc.)
monocytes/macrophages and platelets
Pyogenic Bacteria and Necrosis are typically associated with what type of inflammation?
Acute Inflammation
What is the MAIN indicator of Chronic Inflammation?
Mononuclear cells
-Lymphocytes
-Plasma cells
-Monocytes/Macrophages/Histiocytes
a sub-category of CHRONIC INFLAMMATION which usually has NODULAR COLLECTIONS OF MODIFIED MACROPHAGE/HISTIOCYTES called ?
Granulomas
What are the two types of modified macrophages seen in granulomas?
Epithelioid cells

Multinucleated giant cells
-Langerhans giant cells (nuclei periphery)
-Foreign body giant cells (nuclei random or cluster together)
True or False

A granuloma may have either EPITHELIOID cells or HISTIOCYTIC GITANT cells. This is the DEFINING cells of GRANULOMATOUS INFLAMMATION.
True
What are the 4 Cardinal signs of LOCALIZED INFLAMMATION?
Rubor - redness
Calor - heat
Tumor - swelling
Dolor - pain
The physiologic response of the body to inflammation
Acute Phase Response
Enlarged lymph nodes usually reflects lymphocyte proliferation response.
Lymphadenopathy
acute inflammation of the lymphatic vessels or lymph nodes and usually reflects extension of inflammation from a site that these lymphatics drain
Lymphangitis / Lymphadenitis
Increased Vascular permeability is caused by what 3 possible mechanisms?
endothelial cell contraction

disruption of cell-cell junction

endothelial cell damage
What are the results of increased vascular permeability?
Exudation

Edema

Stagnation of blood

WBC margination
Extraneous substances need to be coated with ? in order to be recognized by phagocytes
serum factors (OPSONINS)
The granules of "granulocytes" are ?
lysosomes

release of lysosomal contents into phagolysosomes is DEGRANULATION
What are Oxygen-Independent Mechanisms?
Defensins (cationic protein neutrophil granules)

Lysosyme (neutrophil granules)

Lactoferrin (neutrophil granules)

Major basic protein (eosinophils)
What is the H2O2 - Myeloperoxidase - Halide System?

What is the end product used for?
NADPH changes O2 to O2-

Superoxide Dismutase changes O2- to H2O2

MYELOPEROXIDASE changes H2O2 and Cl into HOCl-

HOCl- is a potent bactericidal agent.
What does Myeloperoxidase - Independent System utilize in bacterial killing?
O2- (superoxide)

OH. (hydroxl)

NO (nitric oxide)
During an inflammation response what is one of the main causes of localized tissue damage from leukocytes?
Lysosomal Enzymes

Oxygen Radicals
What is the major bacterial killing mechanism in Neutrophils?
Myeloperoxidase
What cytokines do Macrophage/Monocytes produce?
IL-1

TNF alpha
What cell contains virtually all of the histamine in the body?
Mast cell / Basophil
What do Eosinophils have that are effective against parasites?
Major Basic Protein