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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Descriptive or systemic anatomy
the body is considered as being composed of a number of systems, each consisting of rather homogeneous tissues which exhibit some peculiar functional unity
Regional or topographical anatomy
deals promarily with the structuarl relationships of the various parts of the body
Applied or practical anatomy
concerned with the application of anatomy to a specialized field, such as surgery
Microscopic anatomy
concerned with the deatils of structure as revealed through the microscope
Developmental anatomy
specializes in the growth of the organism from the single cell to birth
Geriatric anatomy
investigates the morphophysiology of the aged
Anthropological anatomy
deals with the anatomic feartures of peoples and with the natural history of various races and ethnic groups
Artistic anatomy
the study of external morphology of the living body for purposes of artistic representation
comparative anatomy
the study of the structure and the compariative structures of all living organisms
Animal physiology
deals lwith the functions of living animals as a whole
Applied physiology
physiological knowledge is applied to problems in medicine and industry
Cellular physiology
the physiology of life processes of individual cells or small groups of cells is studied
Experimental physiology
experiments are carried out in a lab with animals or human subjects
Pathologic physiology
the study of functions that have been modified by disease processes
special physiology
physiology of particular organs
Vegetable physiology
physiology of plants
away from the backbone or toward the front of the body
toward the backbone, or away from the front of the body
toward the front or away from the back (same as ventral)
toward the back, or away from the front (same as dorsal)
toward the surface
away from the surface
toward the head
toward the tail, away from the head
toward the outer surface
toward the inner surface
toward the axis or midline
away from the axis or midline
toward the body or toward the root of the extremity
away from the body or the root of a free extremity
situated at the center
toward the outward surface or part
Sagittal plane
divides the body into right and left halves
Frontal plane
parallel to the forehead - cuts body into front and back parts
Transverse plane
divides the body into upper and lower halves
Epithelial tissue
sheets of tissue that cover the external surface of the body
Cell shape / # of layers of epithelial tissue
squamous (flat, pavement like) columnar (rodlike) cuboidal (cubes) simple (single layer) stratified (several layers)
Endothelial tissue
the inner lining of the walls of the blood and lymph vessels - smooth surface
Mesothelial tissue
lines the primary body cavities
Areolar tissue
very loose - cells lie in an irregular network of fibers
Adipose tissue
very similar to areolar, but very fatty - found just beneath the skin
tough, nonelastic, attaches muscles to bone, cartilage, or bone to cartilage
more elastic than tendons - join bone to bone, bone to cartilage, and cartilage to cartilage
dense fibrous connective tissues that are not tendons or ligaments
Reticular tissue
a very delicate matrix of cells which have processes that extend in all directions to join the processes of neighboring cells
Tears easily but can withstand a massive amount of compression
Hyaline Cartilage
bluish-white translucent material at first - covers the articular surfaces of joints and forms the framework for the lower respiratory tract
Elastic cartilage
large amounts of elastic fibers - yellow and opaque - flexible and elastic and is almost rubbery
Synarthrodial joints
immovable joint
Amphiarthrodial joints
slightly movable joint
Diarthrodial joint
freely moving joint
3 types of muscle tissue
striated (skeletal), smooth (visceral), cardiac (heart)
2 basic functions of muscles
relax and contract
3 types of muscle architecture
parallel, radiating, and pennate
EMG - muscle contractions
Muscles are activated by...
groups of nerve axons which constitute motor nerves
Muscles construct the fuel for the activity from materials which reach them through...
the arteries
considered as a physical process of gas exchange - it is driven by the chemical process of the role of oxygen in body metabolism
air movement in and out
Boyle's Law
if gas is kept at constant temp, pressure and volume are inversely proportional to each other and have a constant product - pv=k - if volume decreases, the pressure increases
Positive pressure
>atmospheric (760 mm Hg)
Negative pressure
<atmospheric (760 mm Hg)
Respiratory tract from top of head down
nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharyngeal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs - larynx divides upper and lower tracts - warms, filters air
serves as a protective device - cartilage
extends from larynx to the bronchi - made of hyaline cartilage rings separated by fibroelastic membrane - 11-12 cm long - 2-2.5 cm in diameter - lined by mucous membrane
main stem connects trachea to lung - cartilage rings - r and l bronchi divide into secondary which divide into tertiary each of which supplies a lung segment - then divide to bronchioles then terminal bronchioles then alveolar ducts which lead to air sacs of lung
small depressions in walls of terminal bronchiales and air sacs - 70-90 sq. meters in area - 1000 miles of capillaries - lined by type 1 epithelial cells and phagocytic cells
located in thorax - irregular, conical, elastic, passive - 1/4 to 1/3 of elasticity is from tissue
Thin pulmonary alveolar epithelium
lines alveoli - secretes moisture - have air-liquid interface - this causes surface tension which causes the lining to try and shorten and resist further stretching
Surface tension causes...
tendency of alveoli to collapse, produces about 2/3 of elasticity of lung tissue
Pulmonary surfactant
produced by type 2 alveolar cells reduces surface tension by 5-10 times
Lung characteristics
white at birth - attached to body by their roots and pulmonary ligaments
3 regions of lungs
apex (top), base (bottom), costal and mediastinal surfaces (middleish)