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28 Cards in this Set

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Transient Exuberance
The great increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infants brain during the first two years of life.
Synapse
The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
A situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months of age, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly.
Shaken Baby Syndrome
A life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections.
Sensation
The response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus.
Self-Righting
The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit.
REM Sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves.
Reflex
An unlearned, involuntary action or movement emitted in response to a particular stimulus. A reflex is an automatic response that is built into the nervous system and occurs without conscious thought.
Protein-calorie Malnutrition
A condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind. This deprivation can result in several illnesses, severe weight loss, and even death.
Prefrontal Cortex
The area of the cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control.
Perception
The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation.
Percentile
A point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100. The 50th percentile is the midpoint.
Norm
An average, or standard, measurement calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population.
Neuron
One of the billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially the brain.
Motor skill
The learned ability to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to a flicker in the eyelid.
Marasmus
A disease of severe protein calorie malnutrition during early infancy, in which growth stops, body tissues waste away, and the infant eventually dies.
Kwashiorkor
A disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood, in which a protein deficiency makes the child more vulnerable to other diseases, such as measles, diarrhea, and influenza.
Immunization
A process that stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease.
Head-Sparing
A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition.
Gross Motor Skills
Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping.
Fine Motor Skills
Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin.
Experience-Expectant Brain Functions
Brain functions that require certain basic common experiences in order to develop normally.
Experience-Dependent Brain Functions
Brain functions that depend on the particular, variable experiences and that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant.
Dendrite
A fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons.
Co-Sleeping
A custom in which parents and their children (usually infants) sleep together in the same bed.
Cortex
The outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking feeling and sensing involve the cortex.
Binocular Vision
The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image.
Axon
a fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons.