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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-Top to bottom
-Head to bottom
-Size, weight, and feature differentiation tends to start at the head and move down
-The middle part of the body develops quicker than the outer part of the body
-Center out
-Growth starts at the middle or center and moves out toward the extremities
What is the leading cause of death in infancy?
Accidents are the leading cause of death in infancy. Name the six most common accidents listed in the notes.
-Aspiration of foreign objects
-Motor vehicle accidents
Name the average height and weight of a newborn baby.
-20 inches long
-7.5 pounds
Fill in the blanks. 95% of newborns are between ____ and ____ inches and between ____ and ____ pounds.
-18-22 inches
-5.5-10 pounds
What percent of their body weight do infants lose before they adjust to neonatal feeding?
-They loose 5-6% of their body weight
Infants gain __ to __ ounces per week in their first month.
-5 to 6 ounces
Infants double their birth rate by ____ months.
Infants triple their birth weight by their ___ birthday.
Infants grow ____ inch per month.
By their first birthday, infants are ____ times their birth weight.
By age 2, infants typically weigh __ to __ pounds.
-26 to 32
Infants gain about __ pound(s) per month from age 1-2
At age two, infants are ____ percent of their final body weight.
At age 2, infants have reached ____ percent of their final height.
At age two, infants are typically ____ inches.
-A nerve cell that handles information processing at a cellular level
What are the three processes of development of Neurons?
-Cell production
-Cell migration
-Cell elaboration
What is cell production?
-Most cells are produced 10-26 weeks after conception
-250,000 are produced per minute
What is cell migration?
-It is the movement of cells from the brain where neurons are produced to their appropriate locations
What is cell elaboration?
-Axons (carries info away from the neuron and dendrites(part that collects info) grow and form connections
What is an Axon? How long (meters) are they?
-It processes outgoing information. Some can be up to a meter long
What is a Dendrite?
-A neurons dendritic tree is connected to a thousand neighboring neurons
What is a synapse?
-It is the space between the axon terminal buttons and the dendrite
What is Myelin?
-Fatty cells (Schwann cells) that encase and insulate the Axon
-Multiple Sclerosis is a autoimmune disorder. It results in the gradual destruction of myelin sheaths
What is the Mylein sheath? Describe Myleinization.
-Mylein sheath:
-Layer of fat cells that encase most axons
-Makes the nerve impulses travel faster
-Process begins prenatal and continues after birth
-Visual Pathways, Auditory Pathways...some last until adoloescence
-Make up most of the weight gain in the brain over the course of development
Explain Myleinization's relation to visual pathways.
-Myleinization is complete by 6 months
Explain Myleinization's relation to auditory pathways.
-Myleinization is complete in 4-5 years
A newborns brain weight is ____ % of an adults brain weight.
By the child's 2nd birthday, his/her brainweight is ____ % of an adults brainweight.
Name three facts about the development of the brain by age 2.
-Development is NOT uniform
-Some areas of the brain Myelinate sooner
-Language centers of the brain seem to develop especially quicker (left side of brain)
What is the forebrain (or cerebral cortex)?
-Perception language and thinking
-Cap or outer layer of brain
-80% of brains volume
What are the four main areas of the forebrain (cerebral cortex)? Do not dicuss in full.
-Occipital lobe
-Frontal lobe
-Temporal lobe
-Parietal lobe
What is the Occipital lobe?
-It controls the vision
What is the frontal lobe?
-It controls voluntary movement and thinking
What is the temporal lobe?
-It controls the hearing
What is the parietal lobe?
-It processes information about body sensations like touch
The Cerebral Cortext is divided into ____ hemispheres.
What does lateralization mean?
-It is a word used to describe the specialization of the brains
What side of the brain is mostly language?
-The left side of the brain
The brain develops physically because of ____.
The production of: ____, ____, and ____ are promoted by interaction.
-Dendrites, axons, and synapses
What is synaptic pruning?
-If areas of the brain are not stimulated the brain prunes back those links to make room for links that are more used.
Newborns sleep an average of ____ to ____ hours per day.
-16 to 17
What percentage of infants sleep is REM sleep?
After the first three months, the percentage of sleep that is REM sleep for infants is?
What is SIDS?
-It is a condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing
Does SIDS usually occur at night or during the day?
-At night
____% of all infant deaths is due to SIDS.
__ to __ out of 1000 births; the infant will die of SIDS.
-1 to 2
Doctors are unsure if it is ____ or ____ failure that causes SIDS.
-Respiratory or Cardiac
Risk for SIDS is at its highests at __ to __ weeks.
Infants with low birth weight are __ to __ times more likely to die of SIDS.
-5 to 10
Twins and triplets even at normal body weight are ____ times more likely to die of SIDS.
Infants whose siblings have died of SIDS are __ to __ times more likely to die of SIDS.
____ percent of children with sleep apnea die of SIDS.
African Americans and Eskimos are __ to __ times more likely to die of SIDS.
SIDS is more common with infants from a lower ____ ____ status.
Children who sleep on their ____, rather than their ____ are less likely to die of SIDS>
-On their back, rather than their stomach
Infants need ____ calories per day for each pound it weighs. This is more than __ times the amount an adult needs.
-50, 2
What age should solids be introduced (hint- months)
-6 months
What should be fed to infants, at 6 months, that has a high iron content? How long should this food be continued? (hint-months)
-Infant cereal, until 18 months
-A wasting away of body tissue in the infants first year is caused by severe protein deficiency
Name for advantages to breast feeding.
-Clean and digestible
-Immunizations passed on from mother
-Babies gain weight faster
-Transistions to solid food easier: because of the food flavor variations in mothers milk.
What percentage of mothers breast feed?
Name 3 reasons a mother would choose not to breast feed.
-Social stigma
-Medical problems: medications and disease
Are there long-term pysical or psychological effects from bottle feeding?
Does the American Academy of Pediatrics, Infant Care Manual and Parents Magazine suggest breast or bottle feeding?
At what age is it expected or children to be toilet trained?
-Age 3
Readiness for toilet training depends on ____ ____ and ____.
-Muscular maturity, and motivation
What type of environment should toilet training be done in?
-A warm, relaxed, and supportive manner
Motor Development- Name the Reflexes of infants.
-Sucking, Rooting, Grasping, Moro, Babinski, Binking, Stepping and Crawling, Swimming, and Tonic neck
Gross Motor Development- What can infants do at 3-4 months?
-Roll over
Gross Motor Development- What can infants do at 4-5 months?
-Support some weight with their legs
Gross Motor Development- What can infants do at 7-8 months?
-They can crawl and stand w/out support
Gross Motor Development- What can infants do at 10-11 months?
-They can walk with furniture as support
Gross Motor Development- What can infants do at 12-13 months?
-They can walk without assistance
Gross Motor Development- At 13-15 months, the infant can...
-Can pull a toy by string, use hands and legs to climb stairs, and ride 4 wheel wagons
Gross Motor Development- At 18-24 months, the infant can...
-Walk quickly or run stiffly for a short distance
Fine Motor Development
-Control over smaller muscles that control more precise activities like picking up objects
What are 2 examples of Fine Motor Development in infants?
-Eye hand coordination
-Stacking blocks
Newborns eyesite is about 20/____.
By 6 months, infants eyesite is 20/____.
By age 1, infants eyesite is 20/____.
At what age do infants loose the "visual cliff"? (months)
At what age does "binocular vision" develop? (months)
____ is one of the most developed senses at birth?
Infants prefer the sound of the ____ ____.
-Human voice
Do children prefer higher or lower pitched voices?
Children can localize sounds by ____ to _____ weeks.