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63 Cards in this Set

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Freud's theory that states that maturation of the sex instinct underlies stages of personalit ydevelopment, and that how paretns manage children's instincutal impulses will determine the traits children come to display
psychosexual theory
an inborn biological force that motivates a particular response or class of responses
instinct
Freud's name for instincts such as respiration, hunger, and sex that help the individual (and the species) to survive
Eros
Freud's name for inoborn, self-destructive instincts that were said to characterize all human beings
Thanatos
Freud's term for feelings, experiences, and conflicts taht influence a person's thinking and behavior, but lie outside the person's awareness
unconscious motives
a type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-provoking thoughts and conflicts are forced out of conscious awareness
repression
psychoanalytic term fro the inborn component of the personality that is driven by the instincts
id
psychoanalytic term for the rational component of the personality
ego
psychoanalytic term for the component of the personality that consists of one's internalized moral standards
superego
Freud's their stage of psychsexual development (from 3 to 6 years, of age), in which children gratify the sex instinct by fondling their genitals and developing an incestuous desire for the parent of the other sex
phallic stage
Freud's term for the conflict taht 3 to 6 year old boys experience when they develop an incenstuous desire for their mothers and at the same time a jelous and hostile rivalry with their fathers
oedipus complex
femal version of Oedipus complex, in which a 3 to 6 year old girl who believed to envy her father for possessing a penis, and to seek him as a sex object in the hope of sharing the organ that she lacks
electra complex
Freud's term for the child's tendency to emulate another person, usually the same-sex parent
identification
arrested development at a particular psychosexual stage, often as a means of coping with existing conflicts and preventing movement to the enxt stage, where stress may be even greater
fixation
Erikson's revision of Freud's theory that emphasizes sociocultural (rather than sexual) determinants of development and posits a serious of eight psychosocial conflicts that people must resovle successfully to display helather psychological adjustment
psychosocial theory
the first of Erikson's eight psychosocial stages, in which infants must learn to trust their closest companions or else run the risk of mistrusting other people later in life
trust vs. mistrust
a school of thinking in psychology that holds that conclusions about human development should be based on controlled observations of over behavior ratehr thatn speculation about unconscious motives or other unobservable pheonema; the philosophical underpinning for social-learing theories
behaviorism
well-learned associations between stimuli and responses that represent the stable aspects of oen's personality
habits
any consequence of an act taht increases the probability that the act will recur
reinforcer
any consequence of an act taht supresses that act and/or decreases the probability that it will recur
punisher
a form of learing in which voluntary acts (or operants) become either more or less probable, depending on the consequences they produce
operant learning
learning that results form observing the behavior of others
observational learning
the images and verbal labels that observers generate in order to retain the important aspects of a model's behavior
symbolic representation
reproduction of a modeled activity that has been witnessed at some point in the past
deferred imitation
in Bandura's theory, a verbal encoding of modeled behavior that the observer stores in memory
verbal mediator
the notion that children are passive creatures who are molded by their environments
environmental determinism
the notion that the flow of influence between children and their environmetns is a two-way street; the environment may affect the child, but the child's behavior will also influence the enviornment
reciprocal determinism
age-related changes that occur in mental activities such as attending, perceiving, learning, thinking, and remembering
cognitive development
an organized pattern of thought of action that a child constucts to make sense of some aspect of his or her experiences; Piaget sometimes uses the term cognitive structures as a synonym for schemes
scheme
organized patterms of behavior that are used to represent and respond to objects and experience
behavioral schemes
internal mental symbols (such as images or verbal codes) that one uses to represent aspects of experience
symbolic schemes
Piaget's therm for schemes that utilize cogntive operations, or mental "actions of the head," which enable one to transform objects of thought and to reason logically
operational schemes
one who gains knoledge by acting or otherwise operating an objects or events to discover their properites
constructivist
an inborn tendency to combine and integrate available shcmes into coherent systems or bodies of knowledge
organization
inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the environment
adaption
Piaget's term for the process by which children interpret new experiences by incorporating them into their existing schemes
assimilation
imbalances of contradictions between one's thought processes and environmental events; by contrast, equilibrium refers to a blanced, harmonious relationship between one's cognitive structers and the enviornment
disequilibriums
Pieaget's ter mfor the process by which children modify their existing schemes in order to incorporate or adapt to new experiences
accomodation
a serious of developments that ocur in one particular order because each development in the sequence is a prerequisite for the next
invariant developmental sequence
Pieget's first stage of cognitive development, from birth to 2 years, when infants are relying on behavioral schemes to adapt to the environment
sensorimotor stage
a newborn infant from birth to approximately one month of age
neonate
a pleasurable response, centered on the infant's own body, that is discovered by chance and performed over and over
primary circular reaction
a pleasurable response, centred on an object external to the self, that is discovered by chance and performed over and over
secondary cicular reaction
an exploratory scheme in which infatns devise new methods of acting on objects to reproduce interesting results
tertiary circular reaction
the ability to solve simple problems on a mental, or symbolic, level without having to rely on trial-and-error experiementation
inner experiementation
the realization that objects continues to exist when they are no longer visible or detectable through the other senses
object permanence
Piaget's second stage of cognititve development, lasting from about age 2 to age 7, when children are thinking at a symbolic level byut are not yet using cogititve operations
preoperational stage
an internal mental activity that one performs on objects of thought
cognitive operation
the ability to use symbols (for example, images and words) to represent objects and experiences
symbolic function
the tendency to view the world from oen's own perspective while failing to recognize that other may have different points of view
egocentrism
Piaget's term of reasonsing that is dominated by appearances (or perceptual characteristics of objects and events) rather than by rational thought processes
intuitive thought
the tendecy to focus on only one aspect of a problem when two or more aspects are relevant
centered thinking (centration)
the recognition that the properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superfical way
conservation
the ability to reverse, or negate, an action by mentally performing the opposite action
reversibility
the ability to consider more than one aspect of a problem at a time (also called decentration)
compensation
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, lasting from about age 7 to 11, when children are acquiring cognitive operations and thinking more logically about tangible objects and experiences
concrete-operational stage
a cognitive operation that allows one to order a set of stimuli along a quanifiable dimension such as height or weight
seriation
the ability to infer relations among elements in a serial order (for example, if A>B and B>C, then A>C
transtivity
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 or 12 and beyoung, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events
formal-operational stage
a style of problem solving in which all possible solutions to a problem are generated and then sytematically evaluated to determine the correct answer(s).
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
allegedly a form of adolescent egocentrism that involves confusing one's own thoughts with those of a hypothesize audience and concluding that others share your preoccupations
imaginary audience
allegedly a form of adolescent egocentrism in which the individual thinks that he and his thoughts andfeelings are special or unique
personal fable
the thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors of themselves and other people
social cognition