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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the potential side effects of high dose radiation/chemotherapy?
intestinal inflammation
hepatic veno-occlusive disease(VOD)
secondary infections
What are some characteristics of the thymus?
large in childhood
dual embryonic origin
role in T-lymphocyte development
What is the developmental sequence of an antibody secreting cell?
stem cell > nodular lymphoblast > B cell > plasma cell
What controls secretion from the islets of langerhans?
somatostatin- is produced by cell types within the islets and can control the secretion of other hormones
direct innervation of the islets
nutritional status (main)
What hormones are secreted by basophils in the pars distalis?

pars intermedia?

Intermedia-ACTH and alpha MSH
What is the result of increased TSH levels?
TSH induces release of T4 and T3 which act to increase the basal metabolic rate (weight loss) and increase the number of beta adrenergic receptors in the heart
What is the result of increased ACTH?
– increased ACTH would lead to increased production of glucocorticoids which leads to Cushing’s Disease and elevated blood sugar due to protein catabolism and gluconeogenesis
What are the acidophils in the par distlais?
Which hormones are produced by POMC?
MSH, ACTH, Beta Endorphins
Suprarenal gland
-the cells of the medulla are derived from neural crest cells and resemble neurons without axons
-rennin/angiotensin II from the kidney JGA signals the zona glomerulosa to secrete aldosterone
-the medulla is from the ectoderm, NCC’s, and the cortex is from the coelomic mesoderm
-the various enzymes required to alter cholesterol to make different steroid hormones are found in the suprarenal gland
Increased glucocorticoids will lead to what hormonal status?
reduced CRH, reduced ACTH, normal aldosterone, reduced MSH
iodine deficiency
Iodine is necessary to make T3 and T4 and iodine deficiency can lead to goiter with decreased plasma levels of T3 and T4
Where are filiform papilla found?
Ant. 2/3 of tongue and have no taste buds associated with them
What is a main characteristic of taste buds?
dependence on innervation for sensory cell renewal--without innervation the basal cells, stem cell for the bud, no longer divide
What are Panneth's cells?
Paneth’s cells are exocrine cells in the basal portion of intestinal glands or the crypts of Leiberkuhn
In the duodenum, the low pH of chyme coming from the stomach is neutralized by bicarbonate produced in the:
secretin stimulates the pancreas to secrete a fluid rich in bicarb (junqueira 331) and the Brunner’s glands are found specifically in the duodenum and secrete bicarb between the microvilli
What are peyer's patches?
Peyer’s patches are aggregates of lymph nodules and are covered by M cells, these are important components of the GALT system
-produced by ameloblasts
-hardest substance in the body
-90% mineralized
Neurophils-60-70% circulating
Name some characteristics of a plasma cell.
-tear drop shape with an eccentric placed nucleus
-derived from a B lymphocyte
-significant amounts of RER in its cytoplasm
What is a distinguishing characteristic of eosinophils?
The true distinguishing factor of an eosinophil is the presence of red-orange staining granules in the cytoplasm
Monocyte have what features compared to a b-cell?
A. is usually larger.
B. is more likely to exhibit vacuoles in its cytoplasm.
C. has a cytoplasm to nuclear ratio that is greater than that of the lymphocyte.
heterochromatin and euchromatin
-H-inactive stains dark

-E-active stains light
No nucleus, No granules•7 to 8 μm•Biconcave disk•Cytoplasm mainly hemoglobin with a few enzymes for anaerobic glycolysis
No nucleus•Granular cytoplasm•2 to 4 μm•Lifespan in circulation of 10 days•Stop bleeding and release growth factors the promote healing
Nucleus 3 –5 segments•Prominent dark staining heterochromatin•Granular cytoplasm•12 to 15 μm•Lifespan in circulation of 7 hours•Phagocyticcell especially microorganisms•Pus in infected wounds
Nucleus 2–3 segments•Prominent dark staining heterochromatin•Granular cytoplasm Large eosinophilicgranules•12 to 15 μm•Lifespan in circulation unknown•Participates in IgEmediated allergic reactions•Attacks parasites in the blood and tissues
Nucleus 2 –3 segments•Smudged dark staining heterochromatin•Granular cytoplasm Large basophilic granules-Deep purple to black•12 to 15 μm•Lifespan in circulation unknown, likely short•Releases vasoactivesubstances, may be important in allergic reactions
Nucleus round to irregular, but not segmented•Smudged dark staining heterochromatin•Essentially no granules in the cytoplasm•6 to 15 μm•Lifespan in circulation long •Participate in immunity–B cells humeral immunity–T cells cellular immunity and immune regulation
Nucleus bean shaped to irregular, not segmented•Heterochromatin linear, “raked”•Essentially no granules in the cytoplasm•12 to 20 μm•Lifespan in circulation short •Primary function in tissues as macrophages•Phagocytic, antigen presenting, immune regulatory cells
Where are RBCs made in fetus?
yolk sac, liver and spleen, then bone marrow
Two compartments of medullary bone
2.bone marrow cord
celldevelops in cord until squeezed into sinusoid --circulation
-reg by complex of diff.

2.basophilic EB
Large cell•Characteristic chromatin pattern-lacy, reticular•Nucleoli present•Basophilic cytoplasm
Basophilic Erythroblast
Smaller in size
•Chromatin more condensed
•Basophilic cytoplasm
•No hemoglobin, but occasional clear clefts in cytoplasm
Polychromatophilic Erythroblast
Smaller•Chromatin dense•No nucleolus•Hemoglobin in cytoplasm
Orthochromatophilic Erythroblast
Near size of mature RBC
•Nucleus very condensed-”lump of coal”
•Cytoplasm color of RBC
No nucleus•Blue tint to cytoplasm•Need special stains to identify•Cytoplasm contains RNA•Polyribosomes
2.promyelocyte (1 gran.)
3.myelocyte (2 gran.)
4.metamyelocyte(nucleus indent cell (horseshoe)
6.PMN (segmented)
Fine nuclear chromatin pattern•Prominent nucleolus•No granules in cytoplasm
Fine nuclear chromatin pattern•Larger in size•Nucleolus prominent•Large, dark staining primary granules –defining characteristic
Slightly smaller
•Nuclear heterochromatin more clumped
•Nucleus is round
•Nucleolus present
•Appearance of secondary or specific granules –defining characteristic
Slightly smaller•Nuclear heterochromatin more clumped•Nucleus begins to indent –defining characteristic•Nucleolus disappears•Increase in secondary or specific granules
Neutrophil band
Slightly smaller•Nuclear heterochromatin very clumped•Nucleolus absent•Nucleus is horseshoe shaped -defining characteristic
Nucleus becomes segmented –defining characteristic•Nuclear chromatin very clumped•Size 12 to 15 μm•Mainly secondary granules
Very large cells
•Prominent heterochromatin
•Reticular pattern
•Nucleus segments with maturation
•Cytoplasm granular
•Sheds platelets rather than dividing
Surface immunoglobulin positive
Become plasma cells(secrete IG)
Become memory B cells(vaccine)
G-primary IG in humoral imm.
A-secretions and protect against surface microorgs.(2)
M-main component of prelim. response(5)
I-endogenous-found on all cells-CD8+
II-exogenous-found only on APC-CD4+
Helper T cells
CD 4 positive
–Interact with MHC II
–Increase immunoglobulin production
Suppressor/CytotoxicT cells
CD 8 positive
–Interact with MHC I
–Inhibit immunoglobulin production
–Kill virus infected and tumor cells
Lymphoid Organs
Primary-Bone marrow,Thymus
Secondary-lymph nodes, spleen, Mucosal Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue associated lymphoid tissue
Dual embryonic origin
•Peak development in childhood
•Two lobes
•CT capsule
•Darker cortex surrounding lighter medulla
Lymph Nodes
•~ 1,000 distributed throughout the body
•Filters the lymph
•Lymphocytes encounter antigen-containing lymph
•Centers for aggregation, activation, and proliferation of B and T cells
how do you recognize an active B cell?
large amounts of ER
clumpd chromatin
thymus cortex vs medulla
cortex-abundance of T-cels
medulla-reticular cells and mature cells
cells within thymus
•Reticular epithelial cells (nurse cells)
•Reticular fibers
•Dendritic cells
Lymph Node Structure
•CT capsule
•Outer cortex
•Lymphoid nodules (germinal centers)
•Inner cortex
•Medullary sinuses
what lymph node structures are b and t cells associated with?
B-germinal centers
T-deep cortex
•Largest lymphoid organ
•Filters the blood
•CT capsule
•White pulp = lymphoid nodules
•Red pulp = rich in blood
Splenic Circulation
•Central arteries surround by periarteriallymphatic sheath (PAS)
•Penicillararterioles lead to capillaries
•Capillaries -> tissue space -> sinusoids
White Pulp
•Lymphoid tissue
•T cells surround the central artery
•B cells make up the lymphoid nodule
•Marginal zone = sinuses and loose lymphoid tissue
Red Pulp
•Spleniccords and sinuses
•Cords = reticular cells/fibers, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells
•Sinusoids have “sinusoidal”endothelium
APC--3 types
dendritic cells
What types of infections are recognized by antibody response?
extracellular pathogens and parasitic worms
types of infections are recognized by T-cell response?
intracellular and viruses(abs help)
what are the three effector functions of IG?
complement activation
IgEMediates Parasitic Immune Responses
to Parasites
What do cells look like in the adrenal fasiculata in Cushing's?
excessive cortisol relase will result in lots of mitochondira which converts cholesterol into pregnalone. Few lipid droplets because most will be used. Prominant SER.
What would increased ACTH levels cause?
Cushings-elevated blood sugar due to protein catabolism and gluconeogenesis
What is the distinguishing characteristics of the ileum?
peyers patches and few plicae
What are distinguishing features of duodenum?
brunners glands which are coiled tubular gland that drains into the crypts of leiberkuhn
What is responsible for converting norepi to epi?
PNMT in the adrenal medulla