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19 Cards in this Set

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Give DDX for nutritional, parasitic, bacterial and toxic causes of anaemia and jaundice?
Nutritional
•Cu/Co deficiency
•post-parturient haemoglobinuria
Parasitic
•Anaplasma
•Babesia
•Theileria
Bacterial
•Leptospirosis
Toxic
•brakenfern toxicity
Post-parturient haemoglobinuria: describe the condition, clinical signs and cause.
Signalment
•high producing dairy cows 2 weeks after calving –L3+
•highly fatal
Cause
•phosphorous deficiency (RBC change shape)
•ingestion of lush legume pasture
Clinical signs
•due to haemolytic anaemia
•Intravascular haemolysis
•jaundice/haemaglobinuria
•anaemia
•tachycardia
•death in 3-5 days
How would you diagnose PPH?
Diagnosis
•clinical signs and signalment
•blood and urine
•low serum P
•swollen fatty liver
•diffuse jaundice
How would you manage PPH?
Management
•blood transfusion
•IV P
•treat ketosis
•IV fluids
What is the cause of anaplasmosis?
How is it transmitted?
Anaplasma marginale
•worldwide –tropical regions
•intracellular parasites
•tropical and subtropical tick regions
•transmitted by Boophilus microplus
•transmitted by bloody instruments
•clinical disease in older naïve cattle
•clinically normal carrier animals source
•Bos indicus at less risk (tick resistance)
•calves have maternal immunity
How can you treat and prevent anaplasmosis?
Treatment
•effective during febrile phase
•oxytetracycline LA 20mg/kg
•Imidocarb injected once subcutaneously 3mg/kg
Prevention
•immunity often develops in young animals
•vaccination for A.centraleprior to moving cattle to infected areas
•outbreaks when ticks controlled
What is the causative agent for babesiosis? what is the vector for it? at what ages does the disease occur?
Babesiosis –tick fever or redwater
Babesia bovis
Babesia bigemina
•tropical and subtropical Australia
•mortality, abortion, ill-thrift
•substantial economic loss
•vector is Boophilus microplus
Signalment
9 months –3 years old
maternal immunity lasts 9m
describe the history and clinical signs for babesia?
History and clinical signs
•tick infested areas
•pyrexia –42ºC
•intravascular haemolysis
•anaemia
•jaundice
•haemaglobinuria
•haematuria
•cerebral signs -aggression
•death
how would u diagnose babesia and what would u find?
Diagnosis
•Geimsastained blood smears
•organ smears
•low PCV
•enlarged spleen
•brain smear for cerebral babesiosis
•dark, thick granular bile
•jaundiced tissue
•hepatomegaly
list 4 ddx for babesia
•PPH
•BEH
•copper toxicity
•anaplasmosis
What is the WHD period for Imidocarb?
28days.
How can you control babesia? 2
Vaccination –live attenuated
•natural immunity in frequently exposed cattle
•live bivalent vaccine at young age = lifelong immunity
•some reactions
•can also vaccinate against ticks -Tickgard
What does bracken ferm toxicity cause? What are the signalment for ?
Bracken fern toxicity -BEH
Pteridiumacquilinum
•ubiquitous
•glycoside -radiomimetic
•prefers infertile soil
•neoplasia
•bovine enzootic haematuria
Signalment
•weaners
•undernourished cattle
•exposure for over 2 weeks
What are the clinical findings for bracken fern toxicosis?
Acute disease –type 1
•depression of bone marrow -pancytopaenia
•pyrexia –42ºC
•melena
•ecchymosis on mm
•haematuria
•laryngeal oedema (calves)
•haematomas from trauma
•toxic effects last for weeks
what are the clinical findins for chronic bracken fern toxicosis?
BEH –type 2
•long term exposure
•persistent haematuria
•non-regenerative anaemia
•bladder neoplasia
•haematuria -clots
•loss of condition
•secondary infection
What class of animals does lepto affect? What is its pathogenesis?
mostly subclinical but in calves can be severe
urine for transmission
zoonotic
infected cows shed for years
Pathophysiology
penetrates mucous membranes
bacteraemia followed by haemolysis
What are the 5 clinical signs of leptospirosis?
Clinical signs
peracute in calves
pyrexia
depression
haemoglobinuria, anaemia, jaundice
death
What signs will you see in adults with lepto? What will you see on necropsy?
adult cows
•same clinical signs and abortion
Necropsy
•hepatomegaly
•petechia
•dark kidneys and nephritis
Diagnosis
•clinical signs
•serology –micro-agglutination test MAT
•will be positive after vaccines
How do you treat and control leptospira?
Treatment
•control infection before becomes renal or hepatic
•oxytetracycline 20mg/kg
Control
•bivalent vaccine
•prevent environmental contamination
•hygiene
•control feral animals
•ensure good passive transfer