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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
council of trent
19th ecumenical council of the roman catholic church. called by pope III and held in the mid 1500s in response to the challenges of the protestant reformation. important because it specified sacraments and standardized mass.
first vatican council
20th ecumenical council, called by pope pious IX in the mid 1800s to condemn liberalism and rationalism as well as to establish papal infallability.
second vatican council
21st ecumenical council called by pope john the XXIII in the 1960s. vatican II covered the much needed issues of modernity for the Catholic church. increased the participation and importance of the laity, defined conciliarism which declared that God spoke through the pope as well as all of the bishops. also started a protestantization of the church and changed the mass from latin to english.
the assertion of the catholic church's freedom from papal authority in a rejection of ultramontanism. this was pivotal in the assimiliation of catholics in America.
emphasizes and focuses on the power of the pope. reached a height in vatican one with the assertion of papal infallability. caused great friction in the assimilation of catholics in the United States.
secular priests
a non professional priest who obeys the rules of the state and is allowed to own his own property but allow mutual assistance to the ministry.
religious order
an organization of people who live to serve a common purpose through the vowed service to god. generally known as monks and nuns or friars if they do not live among the public.
all hallows college
an institution devoted to the preparation of priests. located in Ireland, all hallows college supplied an education and profession for many when ireland had very few educational institutions of its own.
paul cullin
a catholic cardinal and Ireland's primate in the 19th century. extremely ultramontanist and desired catholic education for even the poorest of ireland.
daniel o'connel
Irelands predominant political leader in the first half of the 19th century. championed Catholic causes and rights, especially the catholic emancipation.
james gibbons
archbishop of baltimore and later the nd american to be made a cardinal. organized the third plenary council of baltimore. advocated and served as the first chancellor or the Catholic University of America. supported the labor movement in teh united states.
john ireland
third bishop and first archbishop of St. Paul, Minnesota. founded the university of st. thomas. brought thousands of poor catholic immigrants to farmland in minnesota. however, his plan failed because of the residents lack of farming skills coupled with harsh winters. advocated the public education of catholics.
michael corrigan
6th bishop of new york. responsible for greatly increasing the church's clergy and churchces. anti socialist and pro-school. abstained on the vote over the knights of labor, but it is speculated that he would have voted to condemn should the majority have gone that way.
knights of labor
the debate over the knights of labor was pivotal to the success of the Catholic Church. since the catholic religion was one of the working classes, it was necessary to support the ability of a catholic to join, despite the anti-labor union policy of the catholic church. supported by gibbons.