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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The microb. molecules that are the targets of innate immunity are sometimes called
PAMPS - pathogen associated molecular patterns
Adaptive immunity recognizes _____ but innate immunity is less easily tricked by microbes because it recognizes ____ _ __ _ _ __
Antigens, functional forms of the microbes that they need to exist
Are innate immune system receptors produced by somatic recombiination of genes or encoded in the germline?
Encoded in the germline

***SO the specificity of the adaptive immunity is much more diverse than innate
What does the innate system recognize on molecules released by stressed or necrotic cells
DAMPS - damage assoc. molecular patterns
The two principal reactions of the innate immune system are __ and ___
Inflammation and anti viral defense
What innate receptor recognizes:
Bacterial Peptidoglycan,
Lipoprotein,
Lipotechoic acid
TLR-1, -2, -6
What innate receptor recognizes:
Gram NEGATIVE bacterial LPS,
Fungal Mannans,
Viral Envelope proteins
TLR-4
What innate receptor recognizes:
Bacterial Flagellan
TLR-5
What is TLR-2 specific for
Bacterial Lipoglycans
TLR-3, 7, and 8 is specific for
Viral Nucleic Acids
TLR-4 is specific for
Bacterial LPS
TLR-5 is specific for
Bacterial Flagella
TLR-9 is specific for
unmethylated CG-rich oligonucleotides - more abundant in bacteria than mammallian cells
TLR stimulates two important trancription factors - ____ - which promotes cytokine and endothetlial adhesion molecule expression
_____ - which stimulates production of type I interferons, n' cytoklines that block viral replication
NF-kB, IRF-3
Three ways the skin/epithelia protects from infection
Physical Barrier
Killing of microbes by locally produced peptide antibiotics
Killing of microbes and infected cells by Intraepithelial Lymphocytes
Two cytokines that act on endothelium at site of infection causing expression of E selectin and P selectin
TNF, IL-1
Circulating macrophages bind strongly/weakly to selectins and strongly/weakly to integrins
Weakly to selectins, Strongly to integrins
What enzyme in the phagolysosome converts oxygen into superoxide anion and free radicals?
Phagocyte oxidase
Inherited definciency of the phagocyte oxidase enzyme cuases the immunodeficiency dx ___
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
____ ____ cells recognize infected and stressed cells and respond by killin em, and secreting IFN-y
NK cells
Macrophages with ingested microbes secrete ____ which causes the NK cells to secrete ____ which leads to microbe destruction
IL-12, IFN-y
The NKG2D NK cell receptor recognizes molecules that resemble ____ __ _ _ _
Class I MHC proteins
NK cells are inhibited by SELF class I MHC molecules which are expressed on _______
ALL healthy nucleated cells
Three NK activating cytokines (IL's)
IL-15 (important for NK cell develop. maturation)
IL-12, type I interferons (help NK cells murder others)
Three functions of the complement system
Opsonization, Inflammation, Lysis of microbe
Macrophages with ingested microbes secrete ____ which causes the NK cells to secrete ____ which leads to microbe destruction
IL-12, IFN-y
The NKG2D NK cell receptor recognizes molecules that resemble ____ __ _ _ _
Class I MHC proteins
NK cells are inhibited by SELF class I MHC molecules which are expressed on _______
ALL healthy nucleated cells
Three NK activating cytokines (IL's)
IL-15 (important for NK cell develop. maturation)
IL-12, type I interferons (help NK cells murder others)
Three functions of the complement system
Opsonization (C3b),
Inflammation (C3a, C5a)
Lysis of microbe
Name the three cytokines involved in recruiting blood neutrophils and monocytes to site of infection
TNF
IL-1
Chemokines
This cytokine promotes thrombus formation and reduces BP by reducing heart contractility and causing vascular leakiness
TNF

-NOTE-
Very high levels of TNF produced in response to severe bacterial infection can cause the early clinical presentation of SEPTIC SHOCK
What cytokine is considered a cytokine of both innate and adaptive immunity
IFN-y
What intracellular bacteria resists destruction inside phagocytes
Listeria monocytogenes
Org. resistant to phagocytosis
Pneumococci