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29 Cards in this Set

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involves the scientific study of the patterns of growth, change, and stability that occus from conception through adolescence.
Child Development
development involving the body's physical make-up, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and sences and the need for food, drink, and sleep.
physical development
development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabiliites influence a person's behavior.
cognitive development
development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span.
personality development
the way in which individuals interations with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.
social development
a group of people born at around the same time in the same place.
cohort
gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels.
continuous change
development that occurs in distinct stages or steps, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
discontinuous change
the degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable.
plasticity
a specific time when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment.
sensitive period
a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences
critical period
the degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable
plasticity
a specific time when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment
sensitive period
the process of the predetermined unfolding of genetic information
maturation
explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles
theories
the approach to the study of dvelopment that states behavior is motivated by inner forces,memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control.
psychodynamic perspective
the theory proposed by Freud that suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
psychoanalytic theory
according to Freud, a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function and body part.
psychosexual development
the approach to the study of development that encompasses changes in the understanding individuals have of their interactions with others, of others' behavior, and of themselves as members of society.
psychosocial development
the approach to the study of development that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment
behavioral perspective
a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response
classical conditioning
a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences
operant conditioning
a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones
behavior modification
an approach to the study of development that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model
social-cognitive learning theory
the approach to the study of development that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
cognitive perspective
an approach that seeks to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information
information-processing approaches
an approach that focuses on how brain processes are related to cognitive activity
cognitive neuroscience approaches
the perspective that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social, physical worlds
contextual perspective
the perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence every biological organism
bioecological approach