Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data.
scientific method
research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationships between two factors exists
research designed to discover causal relationships among various factors
experimental research
measuring individual
longitudinal studies
ppl of different ages are compared at the same point of time
cross-sectional studies
studies in which researchers examines members of a number of different age groups at several points in time.
sequential studies
Theory that emphasized how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interaction between members of a culture
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
a teaching style that mathces the amount of assistance given to the learner's needs
the difference between what one can do with help and what one can do alone
zone of proximal development
This theory views development from an evolutionary perspective. In this theory, many behaviors are adaptive-they have survival value.
Ethological theory
is the time in development when a specific type of learning can take place; before or after the critical period, the same learning is difficult or even impossible.
critical period
Rapid, innate learning that occurs within a critical period of time and that involves attachment to the first moving object the infant sees.
an optimal time for certain developments to occur bc environmental evets are most effective for fostering their development at that time.
is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain and make predictions about development.
suggested that developmental change occurs throughout our lives in 8 stages.
Erikson psychosocial theory
name all FOUR stages to eriksons psychosocial
trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority
to develop a sense that a world is a good place
trust vs. mistrust
to realize that one is an independent person who can make decisions
autonomy vs. shame/doubt
to develop a willingness to try new things and handle failure
initiative vs. guilt
to learn basic skills and to work with others
industry vs. inferiority
stimulus, that w/o conditions, will elicit a predictable response
Unconditional stimulus UCS
a response that, without conditions, results predictably from an unconditional stimulus
unconditional response UCR
a stimulus that will elicit a predictable response bc of its previous pairing with a previously occurring reflex
conditional stimulus CS
a predictable response to a stimulus that has influence bc of its previous pairing with a previously occurring reflex
conditional response CR
a form of learning in which a voluntary response is stregthened or weakened, depending on its association with + or - consequences.
operant conditioning
ex: genie, wild child
consequence that increase the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
rewarding ppl by giving a reward
positive reinforcement
rewarding ppl by taking away unpleasant things
negative reinforcement
a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
process in which ppl understand a experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking
process that changes existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or event
5 levels of ecological theory
microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
approach suggests that there are 5 levels of the environment that simultaneously influence individuals.
Ecological Approach
everyday, immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives

ex: homes, caregivers firends, teachers
provides connections between various aspencts of the microsystem.
represents broader influences, encompassing societal institutions
represents the larger cultural influences on an individual
the dimension of time. It is the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course.
involves gradual development in which achievement at 1 level builds on those of previous levels.
continuous change
development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
discontinuous change
refers to traits, abilities, capacities that are inherited from one's parents
refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior
identical twins: one fertilized egg divided into 2 separate individuals
monozygotic twins
fraternal twins: 2 separate eggs fertlized by two separate sperm cells
dizygotic twins
a prenatal medical procedure in which high frequency sound waves are directed into the pregnant woman's abdomen
ultrasound sonography
a prenatal medical procedure in which a small sample of the placenta is removed at a scertain point in the pregnancy between the 8 and the 11 wks of pregnancy
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
a prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic flud is withdrawn by syringe and tested to discover if the fetus is suffering from any chromosomal or metabolic disorders. it is performed between the 15 and 20 wks of pregnancy
a prenataly diagnostic technique that is used to assess blood alphaprotein level, which is associated with neural tube defects. This techniqe is also called the alpha-fetoprotein test
maternal blood test
process begins when a sperm penetrates the outer layer of an ovum.
the period of prenatal development that takes place in the first 2 wks after conception. It includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachemtn of the zygote to the uterine wall.
germinal stage
the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form and organs appear. This stage is the most critical time in prenatal development bc it is the time that environamental damage is most likely to occur. (2-8 wks
embryonic stage
the prenatal period of development that begins 2 mos. after conception and lasts about 7 mos. During this period, brain develops rapidly
fetal stage
any substance, influence, or agent that causes birth defects.
when pregnant woman drinks ....she is most likely to give birth to a child with_________.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
born less that 38 wks after conception
preterm baby
low birth weight
5.5 lbs
the first 1-2 mos of a baby
characteristics of a newborn: physical appearance
20 in. 7.5lbs , vernix caseosa
a white, waxy covering that provides the infant with protection from bacteria
vernix caseosa
simple, coordinated, unlearned responses.
Name the 5 key reflexes
sucking, rooting, grasping, stepping, swimming
apgar scale
7-10 normal
4-7 may be developmental difficulties
3 and below: emergency
the degree to which an infant is alert, attentive, and awake
state of arousal

(neonate states)
imitating facial expressions
neonatal imitation
imitation of behaviors that occurred in the past
deferred imitation
the never cells that make up the communication system of the brain
parts of a neuron that are located on the cell body and receive messages
long part of a neuron that is located at the cell base and send messages to other neurons
small gaps, or spaces, between the cells through which info is transmitted from on neuron to the next.
the process in whcih a neuron is sheathed in a smooth layer of fatty proteins (myelin).
the flexibility of the brain allows it to fine-tune through interactions with its environment
brain plasticity
the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body
cephalocaudal principle
the principle that development proceeds from the center of the body outward
proximodistal principle
a baby moves with his stomach on floor
a baby moves on his hands and knees without his stomach touching the floor