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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of disease and its determinants in populations and groups
epidemiology
This type of epidemiology uses survey methods to collect data about a particular, defined population to descrive their oral health status.
descriptive
This type of epidemiology uses specific designs to test a hypothesis and demonstrat an association and establish a relationship. can assess outcomes of preventive or interventional treatments, or natural history of a disease
analytical
in analytical epidemiological studies, this is a group of people about the same age
cohort
A subjective feel of dry mouth
xerostomia
An objective measurement of dry mouth
hyposalivation
In epidemiological studies, this term means the # of individuals affected
prevalence
In epidemiological studies, this term means the # of new cases in a defined period
incidence
a dental index that signifies caries prevalence by # of Decayed, Missing, of Filled permanent teeth
DMFT
a dental index that signifies caries prevalence by # of Decayed, Missing, of Filled permanent surfaces
DMFS
In 1974 what percent of U.S. school children were caries free (DMFT)?
25
In 1980 what percent of U.S. school children were caries free (DMFT)?
37
In 1989 what percent of U.S. school children were caries free (DMFT)?
50
NHANES III showed that what percentage of children experience 80% of dental caries?
25
NHANES III showed that what percentage of adults exhibited evidence of past or present caries?
94
The Oral Health in America report by the Surgeon General showed what as the most common chronic childhood disease?
tooth decay
Who is the father of modern dentistry?
G.V. Black
What 3 discoveries had the greatest impact on cariology?
1) 1930s-40s - correlation established between sugar consumption and caries. 2) Late 1940s-50s - role of streptococci caused caries & established caries as an infectious/transmittable disease. 3) 1940s - demonstration that fluoride in water supplies reduced caries.
What are the 3 major factors in caries formation?
tooth, substrate, & flora
gram+ aerobic non-motile bacteria that produces acids
Streptococcus mutans
gram+ non-motile rods; grows under anaerobic conditions & produces acids
Lactobacilli
What 5 of enamel & dentin are mineralized?
95-98, 60-65
In saliva, what do the electrolytes & organic molecules serve?
to minimize drops in local pH
In saliva, sodium bicarbonate & phosphates act as
buffers
a salivary protein that raises pH to neutral levels
Sialin
How much saliva produced in a day?
0.5-1liter
term for the stone that blocks a salivary gland?
Sialolith
What are the 3 stages of Bacterial Plaque formation?
1) Pellicle formation 2) bacterial colonization 3) plaque maturation
a matur plaque is generally how old?
2 weeks or older
On an exposed, recently cleaned tooth surface, how fast is pellicle formation?
really, really, really fast. Immediate formation
When white blood cells are found in the plaque, what stage have you reached?
Bacterial colonization, stage 2
During days 4-7 (stage 2) which bacteria are colonizing?
filamentous bac, rods, fusobacteria
During days 7-14 (stage 2) which bacteria are colonizing?
vibrios & spirochetes
T/F: Caries is always farther advanced clinically than radiographically
T
When checking for caries, is it better to have a dull or sharp explorer?
dull, to prevent false positives
pH range where enamel demineralies:
4.5-5.5
pH range where root surface demineralizes
6-6.7
what pH range is considered neutral (i.e. between meals)
6.2-7.0
3 ways in which F+ inhibits carious process
inhibits plaque bacteria, inhibits demineralization, enhances remineralization by creating a cries resistant surface (fluoroapatite)
What is the chemical in Peridex or PerioGard & what is its action?
Chlorhexidine gluconate (0.12%). Reduces plaque organisms on tooth surfaces, dental plaque and oral mucosa. It disrupts cell membrane of bac cells.
How would you use periogard/peridex to treat gingivitis?
2x daily for 2 weeeks
What is the gum sugar substitute shown to inhibit S. mutans adherence to plauque?
Xylitol
Name the class of lesion: Lingual surface of maxillary incisor
I
Name the class of lesion: proximal surfaces of premolars and molars
II
Name the class of lesion: proximal surfaces of incisors and canines that don't involve the incisal angle
III
Name the class of lesion: proximal surfaces of incisors or canines that involve incisal angle
IV
cervical 1/3 of facial or lingual surfaces (not pit or fissure)
V
incisal edges of anterior teeth and cusp tips of posterior teeth
VI
facial and lingual surfaces of molars
I
occlusal surface of premolars/molars
I