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136 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
epiphysis(epiphyses,pl.)
the expanded ends of a bone
diaphysis(diaphyses,pl.)
the main shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
that part of the bone which is located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
periosteum
the connective tissue membrane which covers the bone
endosteum
the thin memebrane which lines the marrow cavity of a bone
cortical bone
adjectival form of the term "cortex" which refers to the outer layer.
cancellous bone
A spongy structure, refers mostly to bone tissue
osteocytes
mature bone cells
lacunae(lacuna, singular)
samll cavities containing mature bone cells
canaliculi (canaliculus, s.)
the narrow channels through wich the osteocytes extend
inferior nasal concha
skull (paired)
lacrimal
skull (paired)
maxilla
skull (paired)
nasal
skull (paired)
palatine
skull (paired)
parietal
skull (paired)
temporal
skull (paired)
zygomatic
skull (paired)
ethmoid
skull (unpaired)
frontal
skull (unpaired)
occipital
skull (unpaired)
sphenoid
skull (unpaired)
vomer
skull (unpaired)
incus
ossicles of ear
malleus
ossicles of ear
stapes
ossicles of ear
mandible
lower jaw
hyoid
neck
cervical vertebrae
vertebral column
(atlas)1st cervical vertebra
vertebral column (1)
(axis) 2nd cervical vertbra
vertebral column (2)
thoracic vertebrae
vertebral column (12)
lumbar vertebrae
vertebral column (5)
sacrum
vertebral column
coccyx
vertebral column
sternum
chest(1)
ribs
chest (12)
coronal suture
line of junction of th frontal bone with two parietal bones
sphenoid bone
wedge-shaped bone at the base of the skull, forming part of floor of anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae
nasal bone
either of two small, oblong bones that together form the bridge of the nose
frontal bone
single bone that closes the anterior part of the cranial cavity and forms the forehead, it forms in two halves, sometimes the suture persists into adult life.
temporal bone
one of tow irregular bones forming part of lateral surface and base of skull and containing oragans of hearing,
nasal concha
thin bony plates, there is superior, middle, inferior, projects from the inner wall of the ethmoid to form outer wall of nose
maxilla
irregularly shaped bone that with its fellow forms the upper jaw; it assists in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate, and lodges the upper teeth.
parietal bone
either of the two quadrilateral bones forming part of the superior and lateral surface of the skull, and joining each other in the midline at the sagittal suture
squamous suture
the suture between the squamous part of the temporal bone and the parietal bone
lambdoid suture
line of junction of the between occipital and parietal bones, shaped like Breek lambda
occipital bone
single trapezoid-shaped bone situated at the posterior and inferior part of the cranium
mastoid process
styloid process
condyloid process
the articular surface of the mandible
coronoid process
supraorbital foramen
lacrimal bone
zygomatic bone
vomer
mandible
accessory l.
any ligament that strengthens or suports antoher
arcuate l's(ligamenta flava-pl.;ligamentum flavum-s.)
"yellow ligaments" located in the spine for maintaining the erect position
collateral l.
fibular, radial, tibial, ulnar, etc. not direct but supporting ligaments.
coracoid l.
"like a ravens beak" used to describe area on scapula, combining form corac/o
cruciate l.
"shaped like cross";anterior, posterior, and lateral, found in knees, fingers and toes
falciform l.
"shaped like sickle" near sacral tuberosity and within liver
inguinal l.
pertaining to area of groin
inerosseous l.
"between bones"
longitudinal l.
lengthwise
nuchal l.
pertaining to neck
triquetral l.
"three cornered"
apophyseal f.
a small fragment is torn
articular f.
fracture of joint surface
avulsion f.
indirect fracture caused by tearing or pulling of ligament
blow-out f.
fracture of orbital floor caused by traumatic force
boxer f.
f. of metacarpal neck, caused by striking something hard with a closed fist.
bucket-handle f.
"bucket-handle tear" tear in cartilage leaving loop of cart. in intercondylar notch
burst f.
axial compression fracture" fracture of vertebra often injuring spinal cord
butterfly f.
comminuted fracture resulting in two gragments of bone on either side of a main fragment, resembling a butterfly.
buttonhole f.
"perforating fracture." bone is perforated by a missile.
chisel f.
detachment of a piece from the head of the radius.
cleavage f.
shelling off of cartilage by a small fragment
closed fr.
a fracture which does not produce an open wound in, or penetrate, the skin.
Colles' f.
Fracture of the lower end of the radius, where the fragment is displaced.
comminuted f.
the bone is splintered or crushed.
complete f.
the bone is entirely broken, all the way across.
complicated f.
there is injury to adjacent parts of the bone due to a fracture.
compound f.
open fracture.
compression f.
a result of compression
condylar f.
f of humerus small fragment which includes condyle is separated from bone
dislocation f.
occurs near a joint, and results in displacement of the joint.
greenstick f.
"hickory-stick fracture" one side of bone broken, other bent
hangman's f.
fracture through the axis (C2)
impacted f.
one fragment of a fracture is driven
indirect f.
occurs at a point distant from the injury
insufficiency f.
occurs when there is a normal amount of stress, but the bone is of decreased density
intra-articular f.
on the articular surface of bone
intracapsular f.
fracture occurring within the capsule
intrauterinef.
fracture of the fetal bone while in utero.
Le Fort f.
fracture of the Maxilla
linear f.
extending along the legth of the bone
longitudinal f.
break extending ina longitudinal direction
oblique f.
extending in an oblique direction
open f.
resulting in an external wound
simple f.
closed f.
spiral f.
"torsion fracture" where a bone is literally twisted apart
spontaneous f.
as a result of some longstanding disease, non traumatic
stress f.
resulting from repeated stress to bone
subcapital f.
fracture of bone just below its head
torsion f.
"spiral fracture"
torus f.
localized expansion of cortex, little or no displacement of the lower end of the bone.
transverse f.
occurs at right angle to axis of a bone
tuft f.
splintered fracture of the distal phalanx
achondroplasia
hereditary disorder of cartilage and bone formation(disproportionately short limbs.)
ankylosing spondylitis
rheumatoid arthritis of spine. Back pain, early morning stiffness relieve by activity.
arthritis
joint pain, swelling, stiffness, deformity, fever, and weight loss
chondrosarcoma
pain and generally presence of a mass,malignant tumor of cartilage
degenerative joint disease
pain and stiffness in joints which is aggravated with physical activity and relieved with rest, degeneration of articular cartilage
Ewing tumor or sarcoma
cancerous tumor/malignancy invades entire shaft of bone. pain and swelling
gout
systemic disease due to deposition of urate crystals, severe pain, swelling affecting a single joint
Hurler syndrome
irregular ossification due to overproduction of mucopolysaccharides, short stature, coarse features, skeletal deformities, enlarged organs
hypophosphatasia
result of a deficiency in alkaline phosphatase, skeletal defects bone pain and other abnormal body chemistries
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
loss of blood supply (death of living bone tissue)in head of femur, hip pain, limping
Marfan syndrome
abnormal formation of connective tissue long, slender habitus, skeletal malformations, vision/eye problems
multiple myeloma
most common bone neoplasm, tumor derived from blood cells. pain and swelling
Osgood-Schlatter disease
tibial tubercle, patella inserts onto tibia, when growth centers become stressed, pain at the site upon exertion and limping
osteochondritis dissecans
osteochondrosis involving shoulder and knee joints
osteochondrosis
a group of develpmental disorders affecting ossification centers and occuring in adolescence. Including Legg-Calve-Perthes, Osgood-Schlatter and Scheuermann;pain and limited movement of affected bones
osteogenesis imperfecta
result of abnormal formation of connective tissues; blue sclerae, fractures from very minor trauma, and deafness
osteoid osteoma
benign lesion can occur on any bone but most common on long bones; skeletal deformities, bowing of long bones, and hypertrophy of epiphyses
osteomalacia
softening of bone, as a result of bone being poorly mineralized; deformities and fractures of bones
osteomyelitis
bacterial infection of the bone, can be a fungal infection;bone pain, fever, chills
osteoporosis
density of the bone is inadequate to allow for proper support required of bone; backache, loss of height, and forward hunching of spine (kyphosis)
Paget disease
degenerative disorder resulting in softening and swelling bone; bone pain, kyphosis, bowing of shins, cranial swelling, deafness
psoriatic arthritis
chronic skin disease causing scaling, dryness, pustules, and abscesses to appear on nails, scalp lumbar area of spine and genitalia, also involves joints
Reiter Syndrome
arthritis associated with nobacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, cervicitis, and mucocutaneous lesions
rickets
occuring in infants; resulting from overgrowth of poorly mineralized bone and enlarged marrow cavities. skeletal deformities, bowing of long bones, and hypertrophy of epiphyses
Scheuermann disease
affects ossification centers of vertebrae. juvenile kyphosis, or a curved appearance of the spine
scoliosis
lateral (or sideways cruvature of spine in the erect position. Caused by malalignment of vertebrae.