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101 Cards in this Set

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striated
striped
proprioception
perception of the stimuli
tendon
fibrous, cord like band
aponeurosis
flat, white, ribbon like band
musculoskeletal system
muscles and skeleton
rhomboideus
A muscle of the back, shaped like a rhomboid
triangularis
A muscle of the face which is triangular in shape
triceps
A muscle with three (tri-) heads.
biceps
A muscle with two (bi-) heads
pectoralis
Chest muscle located within the pectoral girdle
intercostal
located between ribs (literally means between ribs)
None
abdominis
in the abdominal area
None
zygomaticus
Attached to the zygoma (bone of the face)
sternocleidomastoid
Attached to the sternum, clavicle, and mastoid process of the skull
maximus or major
Both of these terms mean larger or largest
minimus or minor
smaller or smallest
None
longus
long
None
brevis
short
None
oblique
slanting or inclined direction.
None
rectus
straight
None
transverse
across or placed crosswise
None
lateral
further from the midpoint or to the side
None
medial
closer to the middle or the midline
None
internal
Situated or occurring within or on the inside
external
Situated or occurring on the outside
adductor
Movement to draw toward a medial plane
extensor
muscle which extends a joint
None
flexor
muscle which flexes a joint
None
levator
elevates or lifts an organ or structure
anterior  =  antero-
anteroinferior, anterolateral, anteromedial, anteroposterior in front or toward front of body part or organ, ventral or belly surface of body "frontal"
coronal
situated in the direction of the coronal suture. pertaining to head or crown.
*distal  =  disto-
distobuccal, distocervical, distolabial. remote; farther from any point of reference; opposite of proximal.
*dorsal  =  dorso-
dorsoanterior, dorsolateral, dorsomedial, dorsoposterior; pertaining to the back; a position more toward the back than antoher object of reference.
inferior  =  infero-
inferolateral, inferomedial, inferoposterior; situated below or directed downward; lower portion of an organ, lower of two structures
lateral  =  latero-
lateroposition, lateroversion. to the side; position farther form the midline of a structure
medial  =  medio-
mediocarpal, mediolateral. middle; midline of a body; pertaining to the middle layer
posterior  =  postero-
posteroinferior, posterolateral, posteromedial. situated in the back; also used in reference to the back or dorsal surface of the body.
proximal
nearest. closer to any point of reference; opposite of distal.
superior  =  supero-
superolateral, superomedial
sagittal
situated in or parallel to the sagittal suture; said of an anteroposterior plane or parallel to the median (middle) part of the body.
transverse
placed crosswise; situated at right angles to the long axis
*ventral  =  ventro-
ventrodorsal, ventrolateral, ventroposterior. pertaining to abdomen; more toward the belly surface
atony
Lack of normal tone or strength. happens in muscles which are deprived of innervation.
atrophy
wasting away or weakening of muscle fibers due to a lack of usage. many different kinds of atrophy.
bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa.
bursa
sac-like cavity filled with synovial fluid,located in places where tendons or muscles pass over bony prominences
None
charley horse
A bruised or torn muscle accompanied by cramps and severe pain. affects the quadriceps muscle
None
cramp
spasm or contraction of a muscle,severe, localized pain
None
dystonia
abnormal postures or disruptions of normal movement from alterations of muscle tone
None
Dupuytren's contracture
Painless thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia due to fibrous proliferation, loss of function of the fingers
None
fasciculations
Similar to fibrillations or tremors. A repetitive, involuntary contraction of muscle. The main cause is nerve damage.
fibromyalgia
myofascial pain syndrome
fibromyositis
Fibromyalgia (called also myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyositis) is a group of rheumatic disorders characterized by achy pain, tenderness, and stiffness of muscles and tendon insertions.
ganglion
A thin-walled band cyst formed on a joint capsule or tendon sheath.
leiomyoma
A benign tumor of smooth muscle tissue, e.g. the uterus.
muscular dystrophy
A genetic abnormality of muscle tissue characterized by dysfunction and ultimately deterioration.
myalgia
Muscle pain.
myasthenia gravis
A chronic progressive neuromuscular weakness, usually starting with the muscles of the face and throat.
myopathy
Any disease of the muscles.
myositis ossificans
Severe contusion or tearing of a muscle.
paralysis
loss of nervous control of a muscle. related to paraplegia or quadriplegia. many types.
None
paraplegia
Paralysis of the legs (lower extremities).
quadriplegia
Paralysis of all four limbs.
plantar fasciitis
pulling or stretching of the calcaneal periosteum by the plantar fascia,pain along the inner border of the plantar fascia. (achille's tendon, causing pain along bottom of foot)?
None
polymyositis
An autoimmune disorder which causes atrophy and weakness of the muscles.
None
rigor mortis
Rigor means chilled, stiffness, rigidity. muscular hardness occurring four to seven hours after death
None
tendinitis
inflammation of the tendon
tenosynovitis
inflammation of the tendon sheath
tennis elbow
painful condition of outer elbow, due to inflammation or irritation of the extensor tendon attachment of lateral humeral epicondyle.
None
lateral and medial epicondylitis
A strain of the lateral forearm muscles or the tendinous attachments near their origin on the epicondyle of the humerus.
tetanus
"lockjaw" caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, produces a toxin causes muscles to go into tetany (hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles, characterized by muscular cramps and twitching). Jaw muscles are affected first.
None
torticollis
Persistent contraction of a sternocleidomastoid muscle, drawing the head to one side and distorting the face. Causes rotation of the head.
frontalis
located above the eye
temporalis
side of head above both ears
orbicularis oculi
muscle surrounding the eye
buccinator
cheek muscle
orbicularis oris
around the mouth
triangularis
lower jaw muscle
corrugator
forehead, creates worry lines
nasalis
nose
levator labii superioris
lifts and is above lips
greater zygomatic
larger of the zygomatic muscles
masseter
found in the lower jaw
platysma
lower jaw down the neck
anconeus
located on the back of the humerus and extends the forearm
None
extensor digiti minimi
long narrow muscle on the ulnar side of the extensor digitorum communis muscle. assists in extension of the wrist and little finger.
None
extensor digitorum communis
positioned in center of the forearm along posterior surface, tendon divides into four tendons beneath the extensor retinaculum, which attaches to the distal tips of fingers one through four.
None
flexor digitorum profundus
lies just underneath the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. flexes the distal ends of the fingers (but not the thumb).
flexor pollicis longus
deep on the front of the radius,attaches at the base of the thumb and flexes the thumb and makes grasping possible.
pronator teres
on the upper middle part of the forearm, arising from the epicondyle (a prominence or projection on a bone). It turns the hand downwards (called pronation) and flexes the elbow.
epicondyle
A prominence or projection on a bone.
pronator quadratus
is deep and extends between the ulna and radius, It works with the other pronator muscle to rotate the palm of the hand down, as well as position the thumb medially.
supinator
positioned around the upper portion of the radius,t works with the biceps to turn the palm upwards (called supination).
depressor anguli oris
muscle originates on the lower part of the mandible, pulls down the angle of the mouth.(Names: depressor=depress, anguli=angle, oris=mouth).
depressor labii inferioris
also originates on the mandible and inserts on to the orbicularis muscle,it depresses the bottom lip.(Names: depressor=depress, labii=lips, inferioris=below or bottom).
lateral pterygoid
muscle of mastication, originates on the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone; moves the mandible and limits sideways jaw movement
medial pterygoid
muscle of mastication. Both pterygoid muscles are on the inside of the mandible. The medial pterygoid elevates the jaw and provides sideways jaw movement.
mentalis
originates on the chin and goes into the orbicularis oris muscle. elevates and protrudes the lower lip.allows for pouting.
occipitalis
The occipitalis muscle covers the occipital region of the skull.
risorius
originates on the side of the face and inserts on the orbicularis oris muscle. draws the angle of the mouth laterally (to the side), and enables the human being to smile.
splenius capitis
extends from the upper three cervical vertebrae to the temporal and occipital bones. extends and rotates the head.