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6 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Glutamate
Excitatory
Acts on the NMDA receptor
n-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)
Released by primary afferent nerves
Stimulation of NMDA receptor often results in psychosis in humans (PCP, ketamine)
Substance P
Excitatory
Found in synaptic vesicles of C-fibers
Enhance or aggravate pain
Receptors found in peripheral neurons and in the spinal cord
GABA
Inhibitory
Gamma amino butyric acid
Widespread in brain and spinal cord
Baclofen and benzodiazepines are agonists
NE
Inhibitory
Works via alpha-2 receptors in spinal cord
Inhibits discharge of dorsal horn neurons
Alpha-2 agonists (clonidine) reduce pain
5-HT
Inhibitory
Effect originates in medulla and midbrain
Sends inhibitory signals to dorsal horn
Drugs that increase serotonin levels do not appear to alleviate pain
Endogenous Opioids
Three main groups:
Enkephalins (Delta receptors)
Dynorphins (Kappa receptors)
Beta endorphins (Mu receptors)