Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Upward phase (-50mV to +30mV)?
How long does it take from the trigger zone to re-establishing resting potential (unmyelinated)? Myelinated?
0.5 to 1 millisecond.

Even faster for myelinated.
Where does graded response occur?
It only occurs where there are ligand gates, which are only in the cell body and dendrites.
What needs to be done to open or close a gate with regards to voltage?
The voltage has to change.
At what voltage is the resting potential?
What is -90mV to -70mV
Returning or re-establishing resting potential
-70mV to -90mV
K+ diffuses out until it reaches -90mV (because they are closing slowly)
What gate is not found in the dendrite or cell body?
Voltage sensitive gates (found in axon hillock->terminal boutons)
What are the ends of the axon called?
Terminal boutons, which are part of the Telodendria
When stress occurs , what does our bodies produce and what does it cause?
Steroids increase. It causes interferance with the immune response. Then you can develope an autoimmune disease.
What does the Na K+ ATPace pump do?
It pumps 2K+ into the cell and 3Na+ out of the cell so the neuron does not reach equilibrium.
Autonomic, Fight or flight. Stress response. Stimulates energy ro get away.
Afferent is always
Sensory or Visceral (I feel sick)
What are the most abundant & most versatile glial cell?
Intra cellular fluid has more of what higher concentration?
How many action potential do you need to trigger the next neuron?
By the thousands all the way down neuron
L.Dopa is used for what disease?
Parkinson disease
It is tweaked dopamine, changed it's shape.
Does everyone have the same receptors?
What do Astrocytes do?
Make and keep synapses between neurons.
What forms the blood-brain barrier? And why?
Astrocytes form the barrier. It forms the barrier for protection.
Three ways to remove excess neurotransmitter?
Enzymatic Degradation
Pump neurotransmitter back in, to be used again.
Cell in the synaptic cleft that eats neurotransmitters
Enzymatic Degradation
In the synaptic cleft, enzymes that break it apart or destroy it.
Norepinephrine binds to what? and causes what?
Binds to the adrenal medulla.
It causes it to secrete Epinephrine
What can you do to lower your stress?
In the Exhaustion Phase, what may occur?
1. Atypical depression
2. Dysphoria
3. Autoimmune disease
What can you do to hep a person, if you are a doctor, when a person is in the exhaustion phase.
Drug them... to make them happy.
What are the phases of the Gerneral adaptation syndrome?
What does Corticotropin releasing hormone do after it is secreted?
It released into the bloodstream to bind to the anterior pituitary cell.
What does Cortisol do after it is released?
Goes into the bloodstream and binds to the liver
After Adrenocorticotropic Hormone binds ro the adreanal cortex to release?
What do Adrenocorticotropic Hormones do after it is released?
It goes to the bloodstream and binds to the cells of the Andrenal cortex
What hormone is secreted from the hypothalamus cells?
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
What does your body do in the resistance phase so you don't die?
Down regulate, the receptors that binds Epi and NorEpi and brings them together.
How can you tell if someone is in the resistance phase?
When they start compaining about things but can't be diagnosed.
Norepinephrine is like what?
To what does norepinephrine bind?
It binds to effector organs to create an effect.
Why is there more then one phase in the general adaptation syndrome?
Because some stress last more then seconds, days, or weeks?
What is it called when glycogen is broken down into glucose?
What happens after glycogen is broken down into glucose?
It produces ATP, to give you energy to respond to the stress.
What happens after Cortisol binds to the liver?
It begins to break down glycogen to glucose.
What does the anterior pituitary cells release?
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
What is the job of Norepinephrine and Epinephrine?
To make all of the stress responses happen.
What is the neurotransmitter called that is released from sympathetic nervous system?
What can't your body down regulate for and why?
Cortisol because it is a steroid and it can slip through.
What happens when down regulation occurs? What does it stop?
The receptors are brought in so you don't respond to the stimulation, now they produce ACTH which in return down regulate too.
When do you know a person had moved from the resistance phase to the exhaustion phase?
Now the person is clinically diagnosed... ex heart attack
What hormone casues a person to go from resistance to exhaustion phase? Why?
Cortisol because it is a Catabolic hormone.
What does Cortisol prefer to break down first?
What proteins does Cortisol break down?
Muscle (Smooth, Cardiac and Skeletal)
Enzymes (everything slows down
Hormones (breakdown)
Immune system
What are 2 problems with down regulation?
Reuptake of receptors

Can down regulate and stay that way
What causes down regulation problems?
When you only work on neural pathway not the endocrine pathway.
With regards to the exhaustion pahse, what does it mean when the body is physically & psychologically tired?
Neurons dont fire correctly.
Atypical depression
What do ligand sensitve gates interact with to allow the gate open?
Once calcium attaches, what does it do?
It moves the vesciles to the cell membrane where it will dissolve then exocytosis will occur.
Now neurotransmitters goes into the synaptic cleft.
Now the neurotransmitter will bind to ligand gate causing it to open causing K+ to difuse in.
What is reuptake and what with regards to neurons is it used for?
It pumps neurotransmitter back in to be used again.
Where is Enzymatic degradation?
Where does it occur?
In synaptic cleft.
It is an enzyme that breaks down or destroys neurotransmitters.
What is phagocytosis used for in the neuron?
The cell in the synaptic cleft that easts neurotransmitters.
What are Action potentials called?
All or none.
How do you propagate an action potential?
Accumulate K+.
Then repel down the membrane.
What is it referred to when the amount of gates open due to perception?
The graded response
What are stem cells?
Undifferentiated (they haven't become anything yet)or Mesenchymal cells.
What happens when oligodendrocytes are taken off?
The neuro-impulses can go out the sides. This can cause MS.
Nodes of Ranvier

AKA: Neurofibril Nodes
The gaps in te myelin sheaths.
What does not secrete growth factor?
Aglial Cells
Teledendria is in what zone?
Secretory Zone
What is the difference between another kind of cells and a neuron?
Why are neurons Amitotic?
because they are lacking centrioles that pull them apart.
What is occurring in the graded response and what does it mean to the perception of the brain?
Draw an action potential and label it.
Describe what is happening in each of the phases of the action potential.
What are ligand gates?
They are gates that neurons respond to, anything that can stimulate a neuron is a ligand. AKA: Cheically gated
Extra cellular fluid has more of what in higher concentration?
Beacuse of an imbalance of 3K+ outisde and 2Na+ inside, how do you write the charges on the membrane?
neg (-) along the inside and pos (+) along the outisde of the membrane, however this doesn't mean inside is neg, it means that it is less positive then the outside.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI)
It is an enxyme inhibitor.
Stops enzymatic degradation of neurotransmitters. This makes you feel better.
How much neurotransmitter does the presynaptic neuron release?
The same amount of gates on the post-synaptic neuron.
It has to be the same, or the brain will percieve it incorrectly.
What do Neurotransmitters do to a cell?
They stimulate it.
Terminal boutons have what kind of gates?
Voltage regulated gates for Calcium
What is the name of the chemical on the inside of the vesicles?
(They are ligands)
How many calcium must attach for exocytosis to occur?
What is it called when the pos inside and the neg outside flip from -50mV to +30mV (Upward phase)?
Polarity (more pos inside and less outside, which is typically reversed).
What is the difference between a nerve and a neuron?
A neuron is a single cell that acts as a receptor; only has one purpose. A nerve is alot of neurons bundled together. Can be sensory, motor, or mixed.
As K+ diffuses out of the cell, everything flips again, now it is called what?(Downward slope +30mV to -70mV)
Positive feedback, the whole rise is a positive feedback. -70mV to +30mV
Voltage increase-> Na+ gates open-> Na+ diffuse into cell
-> Repell K+ down membrane->
Voltage become more positive
->More Na+ gates open-> More Na+ diffuses into the cell and this continues down the membrane.