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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stroke Volume
The volume of blood ejected w/ each heart beat
Cardiac Output
The volume of blood pumped by the heart during one minute

4 Determinants of Cardiac Output
Heart Rate
Effect of Heart Rate on Cardiac Output
↑ in HR= ↑ in CO
except when HR is so fast ventricular filling is inadequate
Effect of Preload on Cardiac Output
↑ in Preload= ↑ in CO
(More forceful contractions, larger stroke volume)
Direct relationship
Effect of Afterload on Cardiac Output
↑ in Afterload= ↓ in CO
the force that stretches the myocardium prior to contraction
the forces that oppose ventricular ejection
Related to aortic pressure & Peripheral vascular resistance
the intrinsic ability of myocardium to shorten
("the strength" of the myocardium)
Dependent upon autonomic activity
Inotropic state
the level of contractility of the myocardium
Effect of Contractility on Cariac Output
Positive Inotropic intervention= ↑ Stroke volume = ↑ Cardiac Output
Definition of Heart Disease
A structural or functional abnormality of the heart
Definition of Circulatory Failure
the Cardiovascular system is unable to deliver adequate oxygen & nutrients to tissues
Heart Failure
The potential consequence of any cardiac disease
A syndrome of clinical signs & neuroendocrine abnormalities resulting from impaired emptying or filling
Forward Heart Failure
Clinical signs result from poor perfusion, such as hypothermia & pre-renal azotemia
Backwards Heart Failure
Clinical signs result from high venous pressure
Most common Heart failure in animals
Right-sided (congestive) heart failure
Signs=ascites, pleural effusion, peripheral edema
Left-sided (congestive) heart failure
elevations in pulmonary venous pressure that causes lung edema
Anatomical Classifications of Heart Disease
Pericardial Disease
Myocardial Disease
Endocardial Disease (includes valvular disease)
Diseases of the conduction system
Pathophysiologic Classifacations of Heart Disease
More Useful (MAIN) Classifications
Volume Overloads
Pressure Overloads
Contractile Dysfunction
Diastolic Dysfunction
High Cardiac Output States
Characteristics of Volume Overloads
Diseases that increase diastolic volume of the heart
i.e. valvular incompetence & shunts
Characteristics of Pressure Overloads
Diseases that increase resistance to ventricular emptying
i.e. aortic/pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary hypertension
Characteristics of Contractile Dysfunction
Functional or structural disorder of the sarcomeres can be cause, A.K.A. dilated cardiomyopathy
Characteristics of Diastolic Dysfunction
Diseases that impair ventricular fillinf
i.e. hypertrophic & restrictive cardiomyopathy, pericardial disease
Abnormal cardiac rate/rhythm, can result in syncope or heart failure
Characteristics of High Cardiac Output States
conditions may cause or lead to heart failure
i.e. hyperthyroidism, chronic anemia, AV fistula
4 Questions to answer with Cardiovascular exam
What's cardiac rate & rhythm?
Is heart enlarged?
Is CHF present?
If present, what's causing it?
Diagnosis of Left-sided CHF
Radiographic Pulmonary edema, & cardiac dysfunction (see as left atrial enlargement radiographically)
Diagnosis of Right-sided CHF
Presence of ascites w/radiographic cardiac enlargement or jugular distention
Most common cardiac diseases of dogs
Chronic, progressive disorders, see left atrial enlargement prior to clinical signs of heart disease or left-sided CHF
Most common cardiac disease affecting cats
Myocardial disease, though thoracic rads no very useful in determining the true nature
(Cardiac Ultrasound), allows visualization of structural & functional information, exact measurements of the chambers
Uses of Doppler Echocardiogram
Provides info about blood flow, velocity, direction & character
Used to localize disturbances in flow
Primary use of Electrocardiogram
the "elucidation of cardiac rhythm disturbances"=to determine arrhythmias
When to take Thoracic Rads for cardiology
When clinical signs indicate: cough, dyspnea
When to use Echocardiogram
When the cause of enlarged cardiac silouhette is unclear or need a more definitive diagnosis
Discomfort breathing in any but the standing position
Significance of a nocturnal cough
Common in left-sided heart failure
Palpable turbulence from a heart murmur, best felt with the palm of the hand
Point of Maximum Intensity
Area at which the beat feels the strongest
Tricuspid Valve
Separates Right Atrium --> Ventricle
Mitral Valve
Separates Left Atrium --> Ventricle
Pulmonary valve
Separates Right Ventricle --> Pulmonary artery
Aortic valve
Separates left Ventricle --> Aorta
Significance of P wave
Represents Atrial depolarization
Significance of QRS complex
Represents Ventricular depolarization
Significance of T wave
Represents Ventricular repolarization
Source of 1st Heart Sound
AV valves closing
Semilunar valves opening
Source of 2nd Heart Sound
Semilunar valves closing
AV valves opening
Source of 3rd Heart Sound
Rapid passive filling of the ventricles after systole
Only normal when heard in the horse
Source of 4th Heart Sound
Contraction of the atria & the active movement of blood into the ventricles
Only normal when heard in the horse
Areas of Auscultation on the left side
Thoracic inlet
Areas of Auscultation on the right side
Thoracic inlet
Systolic clicks
usually beniegn, best heard over mitral/tricuspid valves
high frequency and labile sounds
Diastolic heart sounds
Third heart sound
Fourth heart sound
Third heart sound
low pitched sound from rapid ventricular filling
best heard @ the apex
Fourth heart sound
occur @ the beginning of atrial systole, right before S1
best heard @ apex
Summation gallop
fusion of the S3 & S4