• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/67

Click to flip

67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Liquid portion of blood is called?
Plasma
After clot formation, dissolved components of plasma are removed & liquid left is called?
Serum
What % of plasma is water by volume?
90% water
9% protein
1% salt, ions, etc.
When plasma leaks out of small vessels it is called?
Extracellular fluid
Purpose of biconcave disk of erythrocytes?
Large surface area relative to volume
NO NUCLEI OR ORGANELLES
Percentage of total blood volume made up of erythrocytes
Hematocrit
Life expectancy of erythrocytes?
120 Days
Destroyed by macrophages in spleen, bone marrow or liver
Most abundant formed element found in blood?
Erythrocytes
WBC don't function in blood but use it as transportation, they exit blood stream by?
Diapedesis
What are the 2 groups of WBC?
Leukocytes:
1. Granulocytes
2. Agranulocytes
What are the most abundant type of leukoctyes?
Neutrophils
Female neutrophils contain?
Barr bodies
What types of granules are found in neutrophils? (3)
1. Specific granules
2. Azurophilic granules
3. Tertiary granules
What are the functions of neutrophils? (3)
1. Migrate to site of infection- chemotaxis
2. Phagocytose-- release hydrolytic enzymes
3. Release leukotrienes-- initiate inflammatory response
Which type of WBC has a sausage-shaped bilobed nuclues?
Eosinophils
Eosinophils have receptors for?
1. IgG
2. IgE
3. complement
What type of granules are found in eosinophils?
1. Specific granules
2. Non-specific granules-- lysosomes
Which type of WBC has specific granules that have enzymes to combat parasitic infections?
Eosinophils
What are the functions of eosinophils? (4)
1. Migrate by chemotaxis- allergic rxns, inflammation or parasite
2. Degranulation on surface of worms, release ROS
3. Counteract effects of histamines & leukotrienes
4. Engulf Ab-Ag compounds for degredation
Which type of WBC has an S shaped nucleus?
Basophils
What is found in the specific granules of basophils?
Heparin, histamine, chemotactic factors for eosinophils & neutrophils
What are the functions of basophils? (4)
1. IgE from plasma cells bind --> next time Ag is encountered they can bind
2. Bind IgE --> degranulation
3. Release factors to mediate inflammation
4. Histamine --> vasodilation, SM contraction & leaky vessels
What are the largest WBC?
Monocytes
Which WBC has kidney shaped nucleus w/ moth eaten or soap bubble appearance?
Monocytes
What are the functions of monocytes? (4)
1. Phagocytes (part of MPS system)
2. Release cytokines & activate inflammatory response
3. Ag-Presenting Cells
4. Fuse together & form foreign body giant cells
Darkly staining nucleus which fills most of cell & little room for cytoplasm?
Lymphocytes
What are the 3 types lymphocytes?
1. B cells
2. T cells
3. Null cells
Which type of lymphocytes are most common in circulation?
T cells
What is the function of null cells?
Some become natural killer cells --> kill & alter cells
The outer part of platelet disk is called?
Hyalomere-- MT, actin & myosin
The central part of the platelet disk is called?
Granulomere
Platelets are derived from which cell type?
Megakaryocyte
Platelets become activated when they come into contact w/?
Subendothelial collagen
Which type of WBC has a multilobed nuclei?
Neutrophils
Neutrophils have Fc receptors for?
IgG
Tunica intima contains? (5)
1. Endothelium
2. Basal lamina
3. Subendothelium
4. Internal elastic lamina
5. Pericytes
Tunica media contains? (4)
1. Smooth muscle
2. Elastic fibers
3. Reticular fibers
4. External elastic lamina
Tunica adventitia contains? (4)
1. Collagen
2. Elastic fibers
3. Vasa vasorum
4. Sympathetic nerves
Examples of elastic arteries include? (3)
1. Aorta
2. Subclavians
3. Iliacs
Fenestrated elastic lamina is present in which layer of elastic arteries?
Tunica media-- fenestrated elastic lamina
What layer limits expansion of elastic arteries?
Tunica Advenitita
Type 1 collagen
Examples of muscular arteries include?
1. Femoral
2. Brachial
Abundant smooth muscle in circular pattern is found in what type of vessels?
Tunica media of muscular arteries
Which type of vessels have Weibel-Palade granules (von Willebrand's factor)?
Tunica intima of arterioles
Which type of vessels have several layers of smooth muscle in tunica media & thin layer of CT in tunica adventitia?
Arterioles
The tunica intima of capillaries consists of? (3)
1. endothelium
2. pericytes
3. basal lamina
There is no tunica media in what type of vessels?
Capillaries
What is found in the tunica adventitia of capillaries?
Few reticular fibers
What are the 3 types of capillaries?
1. Continuous
2. Fenestrated
3. Discontinuous (sinusoidal)
Continuous capillaries are found where? (4)
Continuous w/ pinocytotic vesicles:
1. CNS
2. Muscle
3. Pulmonary circulation
4. Exocrine glands
Where are fenestrated capillaries found? (3)
Fenestrated w/ diaphragms:
1. Endocrine organs
2. GI system

Fenestrated w/o diaphragms:
3. Kidneys
Discontinous (sinusoidal) capillaires are found?
1. Liver
2. Bone marrow
3. Spleen
What type of capillary has fenestrations & incomplete basal lamina?
Discontinuous (sinusoidal)
What type of vessel has large lumen, thin walls, pericytes & circular smooth muscle?
Venules
There is no internal elastic lamina prsent in?
Small & medium veins
What type of vessel has well developed tunica intima, thin tunica media w/ smooth muscle & collagen & large tunica adventitia w/ smooth muscle & collagenous CT?
Large veins
Lymph capillaries start as?
Blind ended tubes
Endothelial cells of lymph vessels lack?
Lack tight junctions
Basal lamina is usually permeable
Circular smooth muscle in tunica media forms sphincter between arterioles & capillaries
Precapillary (meterarteriole) sphincter
Postcapillary (prevenule) sphincters are?
highly permeable
Partial perfusion of an organ or muscle, precapillary sphincters, exercise, shock?
Preffered channels
Direct arterial-venous connection w/ rich innervation, temperature regulation, glomus
Arteriovenous anastamoses
Vessels supplying vessels are known as?
Vaso vasorum
The endocardium is equivalent to what structure in vessels?
Tunica intima
The myocardium is equivalent to what structure in vessels?
Tunica media
The epicardium is equivalent to what layer in vessels?
Tunica adventitia
Epicardium is what type of epithelium?
Mesothelium