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77 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The coronary sulcus is a groove that....
Marks the border between the atria and ventricles
The pectinate muscles are...
prominent muscular ridges that run along the surface of the auricles.
Contractions of the papillary muscles...
prevent the A-V valves from reversing into the atria
The visceral pericardium is the same as the...
epicardium
A function of the pericardium includes...
anchoring the heart to surrounding structures.
The function of the atrium is to...
collect blood
Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has the following characteristics....
1. has a thicker wall
2. relaxes more slowly
3. develops higher pressures
4. produces 6-7 times more force when it contracts
The coronary sulcus is a groove that....
Marks the border between the atria and ventricles
The heart wall is composed of_____ layers of tissues.
Three
The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the______ arteries.
Coronary
The pectinate muscles are...
prominent muscular ridges that run along the surface of the auricles.
Ther marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the...
right coronary artery
Contractions of the papillary muscles...
prevent the A-V valves from reversing into the atria
The circumflex branch and the anterior descending artery are branches of the...
left coronary artery
The visceral pericardium is the same as the...
epicardium
The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the...
coronary sinus
A function of the pericardium includes...
anchoring the heart to surrounding structures.
The function of the atrium is to...
collect blood
The heart is innervated by ______ nerves.
sympathetic
Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has the following characteristics....
1. has a thicker wall
2. relaxes more slowly
3. develops higher pressures
4. produces 6-7 times more force when it contracts
In cardiac muscle, the depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of...
increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.
The heart wall is composed of_____ layers of tissues.
Three
The plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to...
the calcium channels remaining open longer than the sodium channels
The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the______ arteries.
Coronary
The marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the...
right coronary artery
The circumflex branch and the anterior descending artery are branches of the...
left coronary artery
The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the...
coronary sinus
The heart is innervated by ______ nerves.
sympathetic
In cardiac muscle, the depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of...
increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.
The plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to...
the calcium channels remaining open longer than the sodium channels
In cardiac muscle...
at least half of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell.
The pace established by the SA node depends on what?
1. extracellular concentration of potassium ion
2. extracellular concentration of calcium ion
3. temperature of the body
4. type and amount of neurotransmitter present.
Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an EKG by the...
QRS complex
The T wave on the EKG tracing represents...
ventricular repolarization
The first heart sound is heard when the...
AV valves close
During the isovolumetric phase of ventricular systole, the...
AV valves and semilunar valves are closed.
During the cardiac cycle, the...QRS complex of the EKG precedes the increase in ventricular pressure. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the...
stroke volume
According to Starling's law of the heart, the cardiac output is directly related to the...
venous return
Increased venous blood flow to the right atrium causes...
1. cells of the SA node to depolarize faster
2. will result in increased heart rate
3. triggers the atrial(Bainbridge)reflex
Drugs known as beta blockers will...
decrease heart rate
The heart beats app ________ times a day.
100,000 times
The heart pumps app_______ liters of blood each day.
8,000
The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the beating of the heart is known as...
cardiac tamponade
The connective tissue of the epicardium at the interventricular and coronary sulci generally contains...
fat
arteries
veins
Intercalated discs convey the force of contraction from cell to cell and propagate...
action potentials
There are ____ pulmonary veins.
four
The right and left coronary artery delivers blood to the myocardium. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Blood is supplied to the left atrium via the...
left coronary artery
A heartbeat lasts app_____ msec.
370msec
Most of the cells of the conducting system are smaller than the contractile cells of the myocardium and contain few myofibrils. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Depolarization of the atria corresponds directly to the EKG's...
P wave
Tetanic muscle contractions cannot occur in a normal cardiac muscle cell because...
the refractory period lasts until the muscle cell relaxes.
The right atrium forms the right border of the heart. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The wall of the right ventricle forms most of the inferior border of the heart. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The anterior surface of the heart primarily consists of the right atrium and right ventricle. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Deep grooves and folds on the inner surface of the ventricles are called...
trabeculae carnae
The cells responsible for establishing the rate of a cardiac contraction are the...
nodal cells
The cardiac reserve is the difference between the resting and maximal cardiac output. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
cardiac muscle is similar to skeletal muscle in the...
presence of striations
As a result of the long refractory period, cardiac muscle cannot exhibit...
tetany
The concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum is grater in skeletal muscle compared with cardiac muscle. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Drugs known as calcium channel blockers can be used to...
decrease the force of cardiac contraction.
List 4 enzymes found in the blood following a myocardial infarction.
1. LDH
2. SGOT
3. MB-CK
4. CPK
The number of action potentials/min spontaneously generated by the SA node is greater than those generated by the AV node. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Stroke volume when extracellular calcium ion concentrations are high is greayer with respect to when concentrations are low. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Heart rate is greater when norepinephrine is released at the SA node, then when acetylcholine is released at the SA node. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The conduction velocity along a purkinje fiber is greater then the velocity along a normal myocardial fiber. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The amount of intracellular calcium ions in cardiac muscle after beta receptors are stimulated, is greater than after muscarinic receptors are stimulated. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The pulmonary trunk is attached to the aortic arch by the...
ligamentum arteriosum
If the membrane of the cardiac muscle cells in the SA node become more permeable to potassium ions, the...
heart rate will decrease
What effect would compressing the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm have on cardiac function/
sympathetic stimulation of the heart would increase.
When parasympathetic stimulation of the heart is increased, the end systolic volume is increased. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
When stroke volume is increased, venous return is increased. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Manganese ion blocks the calcium channels in the cardiac muscle membrane. How would the presence of manganese in the ECF affect the contraction of the heart muscle?
The heart would beat less forcefully.
Can a severe mitral valve prolapse cause fluid congestion in the lungs/
Yes.
if there is a blockage between the AV node and the AV bundle, how will this affect the appearance of the EKG?
There will be more P waves than QRS complexes.