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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
auscultation findings in ASD
1)fixed, wide splitting of the 2nd heart sound
2)pulmonic systolic ejection murmur
consequences of untreated ASD
pulmonary hypertension
atrial tachyarrythmias
systemic emboli
recurrent respiratory infections
heart failure
diagnosis of endocarditis
A)pathological/microbiological evidence
B)2 major critera
C)1 major, 3 minor
typical microorganisms from 2 diff cultures
evidence of endocardial involvement (echiocardiographic vegetaion or abcess or NEW regurgitant murmur)
predisposing heart condition
IV drug use
fever over 38
vascular phnomena
immunologic phenomena
microbio or echo evidence not meeting major criteria
Neurogenic causes of syncope
vasovagal, situational, neurologic, carotid sinus, psychiatric conditions, medications, orthostasis, hypoglycemia
Cardiogenic causes of syncope
tachyrrhythmias, bradyarrythmias, pacemaker malfunction, prolonged QT syndrome, organic heart disease, cardiopulmonary
Metabolic syndrome
3 of 5:
increased waist circumfrence
elevated triglycerides
reduced HDL
elevated BP
elevated fasting glucose
TNF-alpha, IL-6
MCP-1, PAI-1
TNF-alpha, IL-6
proinflammatory cytokines associated w/ insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis
plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

potentially atherogenic
can contribute to endothelial dysfunction and ultimately atherosclerosis
antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic effects
monocyte chemoattractant protein -1

potentially atherogenic
can attract and promote infiltration of macrophages
R2 is goverend by
metabolic, endothelial, neurohumoral, and myogenic factors
metabolic factors
adenosine, PO2, PCO2
predominantly affects arterioles <100um
endothelial factors
Vasodialtors: EDRF (NO), endothelial derived hyperpolarizing factor, prostacyclins
Vasoconstrictor: endothelins
neurohumoral factors
ANS and circulating vasoactive agents
a2 adrenergic vasoconstriction, B2 adrenergic vasodilation
myogenic factors
modulate precappillary pressure
underbasal conditions _____ factors predominate
in increased activity ______ factors predominate
endothelial and neurohormonal
reactive hyperemia
the increase in coronary flow, following a breif period of coronary artery occlusion
during exersize _____ dialate primarily arterioles <100um
metabolic factors
during excersize ______ dilate primarily arterioles 100-200um
endothelial or neurohumoral factors
organic nitrates and EDDF
generate NO and vasodialtion via stimulation of guanylate cyclase
nitrate tolerance
thiol depletion, increased ROS
first pass effect of ...
oral dinitrates (not mononitrates)