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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the pathogenesis of SAS in dogs? in cats?
dogs- subvalvular fibrous ring in the left ventricular outflow tract
cats- supravalvular
describe the mumur heard with Subaortic stenosis
systolic, ejection-type mumur heard loudest over the aortic valve
With SAS, what two sequela may be found with the heart?
pressure-overload induced left ventricular (concentric) hypertrophy and 2. AV valve insuffiency
what risk does the aortic valve have in an animal with SAS
increased risk for bacterial endocarditis
Pulmonic stenosis is most commonly seen in what breeds of dogs?
toy breeds (esp. chihuahuas, minature schnauzers, and fox terriers)
what is the pathophys of pulmonic stenosis
dysplatic changes in the pulmonic valve
With pulmonic stenosis, what two sequela may be found with the heart?
right ventricular hypertrophy accompained by tricuspid valve insuffiency and right atrial dilation
what heart sounds may be audible with pulmonic stenosis
1. systolic ejection mumur w/ or w/o a palpable precordial thrill
2. a split S2 (delayed closure of the pulmonic valve
3. systolic mumur associated with tricuspid valve insuffiency
What are the surgical options for treatment of pulmonic stenosis? and how do you choice the choice of treatment?
1. balloon vulvoplasty (non surgical)
2. patch graft
3. vulvulotomy
4. conduit
depends on the level/degree of subvalvular muscular hypertrophy that contribute to outflow obstruction
What breed of dog is ventricular septal defect inherited in?
VSD is most common in what spp?
in cats
what is the pathophysiology of VSD
similiar to that of PDA, left-to-right shunting of blood resulting in a volume overload
what type of mumur is auscultated with ventricular septal defects?
harsh, holosystolic mumur heard over the right sternal border (2 to 4th intercostal space)
when will you get right-to-left shunting of the blood with a ventricular septal defect?
if pulmonary hypertension, pulmonic stenosis increase ventricular outflow resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy increases right ventricular pressure
VSDs occur most frequently where on the septum
usually in the membranous portion, (high in the interventricular septum)
what are the treatment options for animals with a small/mild VSD
no treatment is required, these will normally close within the first 2 years of life
what are the treatment options for animals with moderate/severe VSD
1. pulmonary artery banding
2. open heart surgery- surgical closure of the defect (good prognosis)
both are CONTRAINDICATED if right-to-left shunting has developed
what mumurs can you expect to hear with Atrial septal defect?
1. soft systolic mumur over the pulmonic and tricuspid valve and the S2 is split
2. systolic mumur caused by pulmonic stenosis on left heart base (related to volume overload)
3. soft diastole mumur over the right hemithorax associated with tricuspid stenosis (related to volume overload)
what electrocardiographic findings are indicative of right atrial and ventricular enlargement?
r. atrial enlargement- P pulmonale
r. ventricular enlargement- right axis deviation and deep S waves in lead I, II, III
what breeds are commonly affected with tricuspid valve dysplasia
Male old english sheepdogs, german sherpaherds dogs, weimaraners, and labrador retrievers
what mumur is heard with tricuspid valve dysplacia
holosystolic mumur over the tricuspid area
what electrocardiographic findings may be seen with tricuspid valve dysplacia
atrial arrthymias, especially atrial fibrillation
what is tetralogy of fallot composed of?
ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and overriding (dextropositioning) of the aorta
describe the pathophys of tetraology of fallot
pulmonic stenosis with resulatant right ventricualr hypertorphy which causes a right to left shunting throught the VSD. admixture of unoxygenated blood causing varing degrees of hypoxemia. stimulates the kidney to release hypoxemia-stimulated erythropoietin. increase PCV- sludging of blood, poor tissue oxygenation, intravascular thrombosis, stroke, seizures, hemorrhage, rarely, arrthymias
what are the treatment options for tetralogy of fallot?
1. definitive correction- open heart surgery
2. palliative surgery- anastomosis of the subclavian artery or ascending aorta to the pulmonary artery
3. phlebotomy
4. Beta-adrenergic blockers
what is the hallmark sign of Persistant right aortic arch?
what is the most common vascular ring anomaly in the dog?
PRAA (persistant right aortic arch)
what radiographic finding is seen in lungs with pneumonia
bronchoalveolar pattern in the dependent lobes
what is the treatment for PRAA?
surgical division of the ligamentum arteriosum to relieve esophageal constricution
what is the prognosis for animals with PRAA
good, but depends on the function of the esophagus. some dogs have persistant regurgitation even after surgical treatment