Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the intermediate host for Dirofiliaria immitus
Female mosquitos that are infected after a blood meal from a dog with microfilaria (L1)
How long does it take L1 to develop to L3 in the mosquito
approx 2.5 weeks
What larval stage enters the bite wound of a dog for infection
How long does it take L3 to migrate through the tissues and develop into L5?
100 days
What is the prepatent period of Dirofiliaria
6 months
What is occult heartworm disease?
the presence of adult heartworms without circulating microfilaria
what is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension in dogs?
heartworms due to infecting the pulmonary vasculature
Who is most commonly infected with heartworms
large breed, male, outdoor dogs with no prophylactic treatment, avg age 4-8 years
How can diagnosis be made for heartworm identification in dogs?
1. heartworm antigen test
2. detection of circulating microfilaria (a. direct blood smear, b. concentration test)
what can cause false negative tests with a heartworm antigen test?
1. only immature worms
2. the number of worms is small
3. no gravid females worms present
what is considered "characteristic" sometimes even "pathognomic" for heartworm disease on radiographs?
1. right sided heart enlargement
2. dilation of the main pulmonary artery
3. dilated, tortuous caudal lobar pulmonary arteries
how does the ECG present in most dogs affected with heartworm?
mainly normal but may see signs of right ventricular enlargement
what complication is associated with adulticide therapy?
post-adulticide thromboembolic lung disease
what adulticide therapy is used in dogs with heartworm disease?
1. thiacertarsamide, an arsenical
2. melarsomine dihydrochloride
What drug(s) will decrease the worm kill if given with thiacertarsamide?
what are the side effects of thiacetarsamide?
1. hepatotoxic
2. tissue necrosis and sloughing if extravasated
how should thiacetarsamide be administered?
IV, every 8-12 hours for four treatments using a butterfly or indwelling catherter
what is the difference between the two adulticide therapy drugs in dogs?
melarsmine has superior efficacy, has fewer side effects and is easier to administer
what drugs are used for your microfilaricide therapy?
ivermectin or milbemycin
how do you confirm treatment success
1. microfilaria concnetration test 3 weeks after microfilaricide therapy
2. heartworm antigen test 3 months after removal of adult worms
what laboratory findings do you expect to see in an animal that has complication of adulticide therapy: post-adulticide thromboembolic lung disease?
thrombocytopenia, prolonged clotting times, and increased amounts of fibrin degredation products
increased amounts of fibrin degredation products are indicative of what
low grade DIC
what should be administered in cases of low grade DIC
heparin or aspirin for 2-4 weeks
what are three treatment regimens that can be used in the face of severe pulmonary arterial disease due to heartworm infection in dogs?
1. surgical removal of the worms- forceps via jugular vein using fluoroscopy
2. melarsamine dihydrochloride (low/reduced dose)-kill portion of worms
3. prolonged cage confinement and aspirin/heparin
immune-mediated removal of microfilaria in dogs with occult infection causes what
allergic pneumonitis
what defines caval syndrome in dogs
very heavy worm numbers of greater than 75 to 100 worms that move into the right atrium and vena cava
what prophylaxtic agents are used for heartworm disease in dogs and how often are they administered
1. DEC- administered daily
2. milbemicin or ivermectin- administered monthly
what is the most common pericardial disorder in dogs and cats
pericardial effusion
what is the most common congenital malformation affecting the pericardium in dogs and cats
peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia
what is the only primary heart tumor that occurs with frequency