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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is cardiomegaly?
a broad term that includes subacute or chronic disorders of the myocardium
What are the 3 types of cardiomyopathy?
1. Dilated
2. Hypertrophic
3. Restrictive
Which type of cardiomyopathy is the most common?
dilated cardiomyopathy
What type of cardiomyopathy is the least common?
restrictive cardiomyopathy
What are some characteristics of dilated cardiomyopathy?
• signs and symptoms of heart failure
• exam often reveals cardiomegaly, JVD, S3 or S4, mitral and tricuspid regugitation, low systemic BP, pulsus alterans
• Echo shows left ventricular dilation and dysfunction
What are some characteristics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
• impaired diastolic filling due to stiff ventricle
• left ventricular outflow can be impaired as mitral valve and thickened septum meet in mid-systole
• most frequently associated with sudden death in athletes
What are some physical findings upon examination of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
• bisferiens carotid pulse (pulse with two palpable peaks)
• triple apical pulse (due to prominent atrial filling wave and early and late systolic impulses)
• loud S4
• JVP may reveal a prominent "a wave" due to reduced right ventricle compliance
• EKG shows left ventricular hypertrophy
What is the most common symptom of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
syncope, dyspnea, and chest pain
Describe restrictive cardiomyopathy
• due to impaired diastolic filling with preserved contractile function
• right heart failure tends to dominate over left heart failure
What is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
amyloidosis (the deposition of various proteins within the myocardium
What are signs and symptoms of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
• low voltage on EKG
• left ventricular hypertrophy on Echo
• elevated JVP
• Kussmaul's sign (an increase in venous distention and pressure during inspiration)