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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
heart sounds are created by:
turbulent blood flow and associated vibration in adjacent tissue during the cardiac cycle.
Transient heart sounds are
those of short duration
Cardiac murmurs are (as compared to transient heart sounds)
longer sounds occurring during a normally silent part of the cardiac cycle
S1 are best heard with the bell or the diaphragm?
S1 sounds are caused by?
Diaphragm (higher frequency)

vibrations from closure and tensing of the mitral and tricuspid valves (AV valves) and associated structures at the beginning of systole. The precordial impulse is felt just after S1 andthe arterial pulse is felt between S1 and S2.
S2 sounds are caused by?
are associated with the aortic and pulmonic valve closure at the end of ejection.
Which are systolic sounds?
Which are diastolic sounds?
Which sounds are normally heard in small animals?
1. S1 and S2
2. S3 and S4
3. S1 and S2
What events are associated with
A) S3
B) S4
A) left ventricular filling
B) i'm confused!
An audible S3 usually means?
ventricular dilation and failure. It is most often heard with dilated cardomyopathy
An audible S4 usually means?
an abnormally stiff, thick ventricle. Often associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Systolics clicks are heard in mid-to late systole over what area? and associated with what disease?
over the mitral valve area.
associated with degenerative valvular disease (endocardiosis), mitral vavle prolapse, or congenital mitral dysplasia
Cardiac murmurs are described by?
timing within the cardiac cycle, intensity, PMI on the precordium, radiation over the chest wall, quality, and pitch. Also, by their shape on phonocardiogram
4 types of systolic murmurs
1) protosystolic
2) mesosystolic
3) telesystolic
4) holosystolic
2 types of diastolic murmurs?
1) protodiastolic
2) holodiastolic
Which murmur occurs throughout systole and diastole?
continuous (machinery) murmurs
Physiologic murmurs are associated with?
anemia, fever, high sympathetic tone, hyperthyroidism, peripheral arterovenous fistulae, hypoproteinemia, and athletic hearts.
Heart itself is fine.
Mitral insufficiency murmurs are heard best where?
at the left apex in the area of the mitral valve. Radiates well dorsally and to the left base and right chest wall.
What type of murmur does Mitral insufficieny usually produce?
holosystolic (plateau), though if very early in disease it can be protosystolic.
Tricuspid insufficiency murmurs are best heard where?
at the right apex, over the tricuspid valve.
What are the differences between a mitral and tricuspid insufficiency murmur?
different pitch or quality and tricuspid insufficieny murmurs often have jugular pulsations.
Ventral septal defects result in what type of murmur?
Where is the PMI?
holosystolic (plateau) murmur
2. right sternal border (reflects direction of the intracardiac shunt). Larger ventricular septal defects may also cause the murmur of relative pulmonic stenosis.
Continuous murmur occurs when?
indicate what?
most common cause?
throughout the cardiac cycle.
indicates that there is a significant pressure gradient between two connecting vessels. There is no interruption at S2, rather it is often louder. With slow heart rates, may taper at end of diastole.
Patent ductus arteriosus
PDA's PMI is where?
PDA is the most common type of what murmur?
high on the left base above the pulmonic valve area. tends to radiate cranially, ventrally, and to the right. Systolic it is more prominent, diastolic more localized and quiet.
Continuous murmur.
Diastolic murmurs..
1) common/uncommon
2) most common cause?
3) when and where best heard?
1) uncommon in dogs/cats
2) bacterial endocarditis
3) begin at S2 and best heard at left base
systolic ejection murmur
1) caused by ?
2) PMI ?
1) aortic, subaortic, or pulmonic stenosis
2) subaortic stenosis PMI is low on left base and also right base
pulmonic stenosis PMI is high on the left base
Relative pneumonic stenosis is?
occurs when the valve is ok, but the flow is excessive (large left to right shunting of a atrial or ventricular septal defect)