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89 Cards in this Set

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angina pectoris
strangling (angina) pain in the chest area (pectus)
angiogram
x-ray procedure done to blood vessels (angio) involving the injection of a radio-
paque substance into the selected blood vessel.
apical rage
pulse rate at the apex (apical, variation of apex) of the heart
arrhythmia
condition (ia) in which the normal rhythm (rhythm) of the heart is absent (a)
arteriography
x-ray films (graphy) taken of the arteries (arterio)
atrial flutter
rapid contraction (flutter) of the atria of the heart
cardiac catheterization
passage of a catheter, which is a tube for injecting or removing fluid, into the heart ofr the purpose of abtaining blood samples directly from the heart and taking pressure readings in the heart. done to determine abnormalities in cardiac circulation
cardiac output
amount of blood pumped (output) by the heart (cardiac) each minute
cardiomegaly
condition in which the heart(cardio) is enlarged (megaly)
claudication
lameness or limping (claudication) that results from a decrease in blood supply to the legs
echocardiogram
use of sound to preduce a picture (gram) of the sound waves (echo) from the different parts of the heart (cardio)
edema
condition in which there is swelling (edema) of parts of the body from an accumulation of fluid outside the blood vessels
fibrillation
action of (tion) uncontrolled twitching of the fibers (fibrill) of the heart muscles. may be atrial fibrillation, in which the atria twitch, or ventricular fib, where the ventricles twitch
murmur
sound heard throug a stethoscope produced by abnormal opening and closing of the valves in the heart or by abnormal flow of blood through the heart. they are not always considered to be abnormal
palpitation
awareness of an abnormally strong or abnormally rapid beating of the heart
tachycardia
condition in which the heart beats faster than normal
thrill
fine vibration felt by the hand on the chest surface, resulting from a loud murmur
vasodilation
dilation, or widening, of diameter of blood vessels
ventricular hypertropy
increase (hyper) in size (trophy) of the ventricle or the ventricles of the heart
aneurysm
AAA
dilation or widening (eury) of a blood vessel caused by a weakness in the wall of the blood vessel. AAA: weakening in the walls of the abdominal aorta
Arteriosclerosis

Arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
disease (osis) characterized by hardening (scler) of the walls of the arteries (arterio)
ASHD: disease state of the heart in which the arteries have become hardened (sclerotic)
atherosclerosis
form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty substances (athero) deposit in and between the layers of the linin of the arteries
bacterial endocarditis
inflammation (itis) of the inside (endo) lining of the heart (card) caused by bacteria
cardiomyopathy
disease (pathy) of the hear (cardio) muscle (myo)
congenital heart defect CHD
heart defect that a child is born (genital) with (con)
congestive heart failure CHF
condition in which the heart fails to pump blood adequately and there is resultant congestion or backup of blood
coronary artery disease CAD
disease of the arteries involved in coronary circulation, which supplies blood to the heart itself
coronary occlusion
obstruction (occlusion) in the circulation to the heart
embolus
ball (bolus) of clotted blood and possibly other substances that is carried within (em) the blood stream
heart attack
sudden seizure (attack) of pain and inability of the heart to function b/c an interference in the coronary circulation
heart block
normal path of the electrical conduction through the heart is blocked, preventing a normal contraction of the heart
hypertension
elevation (hyper) of the blood pressure (tension) above normal limits, high blood pressure
hypotension
condition of low (hypo) blood pressure (tension)
myocardial infarction
nerosis or death (infarct) of a portion of the heart (cardial) muscle (myo)
myocardial insufficiency
action of the muscle (myo) of the heart (cardial) is not (in) adequate (sufficient)
myocardial ischemia
decreased (isch) in the blood (hemia) supply to the muscle (myo) of the heart (cardio)
pulmonary stenosis
condition (osis) in which there is constriction or narrowing (sten) of the main blood vessel to the lungs (pulmonary)
thrombus
blood clot (thrombus) attached to the wall inside a blood vessel
valvular disease
3 types
diseas of the valves of the heart can be three types:
valvular insufficiency: valve does not work efficiently
valvular regurgitation: valve doesn't close completely, allowing some blood to flow (gurgita) back (re)
v. stenosis: condition (osis) in which there is narrowing (sten) of the opening of a valve
Rate determination (2ways)
300, 150, 100, 75, 60, 50

if really slow: cycles/6sec * 10= Rate
Rhythm determinations
Normal sinus rhythm= HR at 60-100 bpm

>100 tachy <60 brady

Ectopic Focus:
AV Junction 40-60
Bundle branches 30-40
ventricle 20-40

Look for a P-ORS-T and then another
Intervals
PR (beg of P to the beg of R): .12-.20

QRS (beg of Q-end of S): .04-.10

QT:(begof Q-end of T): HR increases, QT interval decreases= women have longer QT intervvals b/c lower HR
Standard Leads
I: RT arm neg; LT arm post
II: RT arm neg; LT lower ext post
III: LT arm neg; LT lower ext post

(bipolar limb leads)
Augmented Leads
aVR: RT arm pos; LT arm & leg neg
aVF: LT foot pos; RT &LT arm neg
aVL: LT arm pos; RT arm & LT leg neg
Determining the Axis (2ways)
look at lead w/ QRS that is small or one that is equiphasic
I: +90 -60 aVR
II: -30 +60aVL
III: +30 0aVF

look at lead with QRS that is small or one that is equiphasic; then lood at lead perpendicular to that lead to get axis
1* AV Block
Tachycardia or Bradycardia

PR interval >0.2
no significant change in PR interval from one to another
2* AV block (Wenckebach) (Mobitz I- w/o EKG)
PR interval gets longer and longer until QRS drops completely then it resumes

Benign; no danger
2* AV block: Mobitz II
PR interval doesn't change, but there is a DROPPED QRS complex

MAJOR problem (can develope into 3*)
3* AV block
P & QRS are independent of each other

P firing independent from QRS complex

Atrial rate > ventricular rate; need to specify ration of atrial : ventricle
example 3:1

Rate:
Atrial 60-80
Junctional 40-60
Ventricle 20-40
Premature atrial contractions (PAC, APC)

Cause: drugs, ischemia, electrolytes, caffeine, insomnia, stress, cigar
early beat
abnormal P wave (T wave abnormal, could be stuck under T)
Normal QRS
Non COMPENSATORY PAUSE: interrupts the SA nodes next beat and when resets itself comes back at a DIFF rate
LOOK IN: lead II, also in V1, V5
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)

somewhere above the ventricles
150-250 bpm

normal QRS

NO P WAVE

regular rhythm

Caused by: ischemia, electrolytes, drugs, toxins
Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT)
150-250 bpm

UPRIGHT P WAVE

normal QRS
regular rhythm
Atrial Flutter
250-350 bpm
normal QRS
regular rhythm

SAWTOOTH (F-WAVES) baseline
Atrial Fibrillation
>350 bpm
normal QRS

irregular rate, rhythm(irregular): every QRS at different time

UNDULATING baseline (vibrating)
Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)
early beat

abnorm. QRS: wide b/c not coming down normal conduction sys (>.10; +/- wave opposite of T wave)

COMPENSATORY PAUSE
Pwave present or not; Twave inver/not
Can be: uniform (unifocal- coming
from one place in heart)
Mulitform (multifocal- worse)
Types of PVC:

1. 6 PVC's in a row
2. 2 PVC's in a row

3. R on T phenomenon

4. Bigeminy, Trigeminy, Quadrigimeny

5. Interprelated PVC
1. V-tachy; lose 90% of ventricular output
2. salvo or couplets

3. worse PVC; if a PVC falls on a T wave

4. nb-PVC- nb
2nb-PVC-2nb
3nb-PVC-3nb

5. sinus rhythm is slow; no pause b/c PVC able to go in b/w 2 QRS complexes
Paroxysmal Ventricular Tachycardia (PVT)
Abnormal QRS complex (wide)

150-250 bpm
Ventricular Flutter
250-350 bpm

abnormal QRS

some saw tooth pattern
Ventricular Fibrillation
>350 bpm

irregular rhythm

abnormal QRS
Right Atrial Abnormality (RAA)

P wave morphology:
Lead:
Also Called:
Peaked/ Teepee; 2.5mm or more boxes

Lead II

P-Pulmonale
Left Atrial Abnormality (LAA)

P wave morphology:
Lead:
Also called:
wide and/ or notched (M-shaped); >2.5mm in LEAD II

Biphasic P wave: in V1; at least one box size high (r) and low (s)

P-mitrale
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)
enlarged left ventricle- b/c pumping against increased resistance; chronic overfilling

Criteria:
step 1: (if pt is >35 y/o)
Lead 1 and 2= pick deepest neg.
deflecction; count # of boxes

step 2:
Lead V5 and V6; pick tallest pos
deflection; count boxes

step 3: add two #'s together
if sum = 35 or more= LVH
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH)

Criteria:
R/S ratio is greater than 1 in V1
(R is bigger then S)

if no S, then R >7 mm
LBBB

criteria:

RSR' looks like on R/L sides
QRS >.12 (wide)

Look in leads I and II: wide QRS and
for RSR'

RSR' in V4, V5, V6 ( can be upside
down)
RBBB

Criteria:
Wide QRS in Lead II

RSR' in V1
Cor Pulmonale
Form of heart (cor) disease resulting from disease in the lungs (pulmonale)
Avascular necrosis
condition in which there is death of tissue (necrosis) b/c of the lack (a) of blood supply through the blood vessels (vascular)
Arteritis
inflammation (itis) of an artery (arter)
Congestive Heart Failure
heart failure resulting from myocardial dysfunction that impairs the heart's ability to citculate blood at a rate sufficient to maintain the metabolic needs of peripheral tissues and various organs
plethysmography
test done to measure and record (graphy) variations in size (plethysmo) of blood vessels or extremities b/c of ariations in the amount of blood passing through a blood vessel or contained ina part
Rheumatic Heart Disease
damage to the heart and scarring of the heart valves resulting from rheumatic fever
shock
collapse of circulatory function
Anaphylactic shock
rxn from a severe allergy. the shock occurs because the person is not (ana) protected (phylactic) from a particular protein substance
cardiogenic shock
shock that is produced (genic) from a failure of the cardiac system
neurogenic shock
shock that is produced(genic) from a failure of the nervous system
hypovolemic shock
shock caused from a decrease (hypo) in volume (vol) of circulation blood (emic)
subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE)
a bacterial inflammmation (itis) of the inside (endo) of the heart (card). it is below (sub), the acute stage
cardiac tamponade
condition in which fluid accumulates in the pericardial sac around the heart muscle. the accumulated fluid builds to a pt where the heartbeat is impaired; the flow of blood is blocked (tampon). also called hemopericardium (blood in the sac around the heart)
thromboangiitis obliterans
inflammation (itis) of a blood vessel (angi) that results in the formation of a blood clot (thrombo) that obstructs (obliterans0 the flow of blood through the vessels
varicose veins
enlarged, twisted veins, particularly in the lower extremities
angioplasty
procedure in which a small catheter with a balloon end is inserted into a blood vesssel (angio) to reshape (plasty) the inside of the vessel
bypass surgery
surgery done on blood vessels for the purpose of installing a graft that will bypass an occluded blood vessel. a graft carries the blood supply around the poin of occlusion in a blocked vessel, there by passing the occulsion
carsiopulmonary resuscitation CPR
act of restoring consciousness (resuscitate) by forcing air into the lungs(pulmonary) and forcing blood from the heart (cardio)
defibrillation
stopping (de) the uncontrolled twitching (fibrillation) of the heart through the use of medications or electric shock
embolectomy
surgical removal (ectomy) of a blood clot
endarterectomy
surgical removal (ectomy) of a thrombus and the abnormally thickened inside (end, combining form of ando) lining of an artery (arter)
mitral commissurotomy
surgical cutting (otomy) of the seam (commissure) of the flaps of the mitral valve. an operation for mitral stenosis.
Portacaval shunt
procedure done in which a branch of the portal vein (porta) is sewn to the vena cava (caval). the portal blood is thus diverted (shunt) around the liver
venipuncture
puncture of a vein (veni) with a needle, or the insertion of a catheter for a diagnostic procedure