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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
toxicities of digoxin= ?

what potentiates these toxicities?

what drugs decrease digoxin levels ?
arrythmias, i.e. PVC's
shortened QT
scooping of ST segment
inverted T waves
blurry yellow vision (think Van Gogh)

Toxicities of digoxin are potentiated by:

-acute renal failure (==>decr excretion of digoxin)
-hypokalemia==>potentiates digoxin's effects
-quinidine (decr digoxin clearance; displaces digoxin from tissue binding sites)

These drugs lower digoxin levels:
small mass of finger-like projections attached to mitral valve found incidentally on autopsy;

each papillary structure is composed of "core of fibrous tissue lined by thickened endothelium"

not assoc w/other cardiac abnormalities
papillary fibroelastosis
MC cardiac neoplasm

MC location?
cardiac myxoma

MC location=LA
what causes hypercoagulable states
nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
what happens in SkM during exercise to:

-O2 conc
-levels of adenosine, CO2, lactate
-vascular resistance
-blood flow
Decrease in O2 conc
==>increase in "vasodilator metabolites"=adenosine, CO2, lactate
==>This incr causes decr vascular resistance & incr blood flow
from which fetal vessels do the umbilical artereis arise?
iliac arteries
what dz causes concurrent renal, pulmonary, and nasal Sx?
Wegener's granulomatosis
where do alpha1 agonists stimulate?
smooth muscle cell in media of arteriole
how does Adult Polycystic Kidney Dz cause hypertension?
cysts impair perfusion of glomeruli
==>stimulates JG cells to incr renin secretion
sudden excruciating pain b/w shoulder blades in pt with

Ao dissection
how calculate TPR, given

-RA pressure
TPR= pressure gradient across circulation / CO

TPR= (MAP-RA pressure)/CO
sepsis does what to:

-microvascular permeability
-IF hydrostatic pressure
-IF osmotic pressure
increased microvascular permeability
==>protein and fluid leak out of vessels into IF
==>IF osmotic pressure & hydrostatic pressure
how do G- bacteria cause septic shock?
LPS binds serum proteins and stimulates CD14 receptors on endothelial cells

=>release of cytokines
what causes paroxysmal (periodic attacks of) chest pain?
reversible myocardial ischemia
high-pitched, blowing, decrescendo murmur, heard best at left sternal border 3rd interspace
MCCoD in Marfan's
ruptured Ao dissection
MC heart abnl in Marfan's
Ao dissection
Marfan's symptoms
ectopia lentis (dislocated lens)

Ao dissection

MCCoD=ruptured Ao dissection
-substernal pain that radiates to left shoulder when man is at rest

-pain improves when he gets up and moves around

-pain responds well to nitroglycerin

==>what causes this?
This is Prinzmetal's angina, which is caused by coronary artery spasm
regenerating liver nodules

no nl liver architecture

pathogenesis of nutmeg lvier
==>pressure backs up into central veins & central sinusoids of hepatic lobules
==>central hemorrhagic necrosis
-prominent RV cardiac impulse
-systolic ejection murmur heard in pulmonic area
-wide fixed splitting of S2

==>pathogenesis of the Sx's above

blood goes from left to right
==>volume overload on rt side of heart
==>incr pressures of right side cause dilation of LA and LV (vs. pulmonic stenosis, which only dilates LV, not LA)
==>flow murmur (systolic ejection murmur over pulmonic area)
==>delayed closure of pulmonic valve==>wide fixed split S2
wide fixed splitting of S2
==>incr volume in rt side of heart
==>delayed closure of pulmonic valve==>wide fixed split S2