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41 Cards in this Set

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degree of muscle tension before contraction
preload
afterload AKA
TPR
preload AKA
end diastolic volume
SV equation
SV= EDV-ESV
EF %
EF= EDV-ESV/EDV x 100
or
EF= SV/EDV
stroke work output x HR = ?
minute work output
CO normal value
~5L/min
CO equation
CO= HR x SV
Can very high HR decrease CO? Why?
yes

ventricular filling time is decreased
normal avg for Cardiac Index for adult
~3L/min/m2
max efficiency of heart
20-25%
can the heart continue to function w/o the "pumping" ability of the atria?

Why?
Yes

b/c the atrial contractions only account for ~20% of blood flow into ventricles
EKG P wave represents
atrial depol
EKG QRS complex represents
ventricle depol
EKG T wave represents
ventricle repol
define congestion.

Does this increase or decrease contractility of heart
overload of the heart

decrease
diastasis AKA
reduced ventricular filling (last 2/3 of diastole)

ventricular filling continues at a slower rate (b/c of pressure in ventricle)
during systole what is going on in the atria?

why?
blood accumulation

AV valves closed
is work being done during isovolumetric contraction/relaxation?
No
atrial pressure waves:
a wave -
c wave -
v wave -
a wave = atrial contraction
c wave = begin ventricular contraction (slight backflow into atria
v wave = end ventricular contraction (slow flow into atria while A-V valves closed)
absolute limitation and regulator of how much blood the heart can pump?
venous return
how is blood distribution regulated?
local control via vasodilation/constriction of arterioles
which phase of cardiac cycle is most of stroke volume ejected?
rapid ventricular ejection phase
S1 represents which valves?
A-V valves closing

(mitral before tricuspid)
S1 represents the beginning of which phase?
isovolumetric ventricular contraction
preload is EDV which is related to ___ ____ pressure
R atrial
S2 represents which valves?
Semilunar (aortic/pulmonic) valves closing
S2 represents the beginning of which phase?
isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
R= ? (think Poiseuille's Law)
nl/r4
n= viscosity
l= length
r= radius
what happens in the ventricular pressure-volume loop w/ increased preload?
increase in SV
and
increased width of pressure-volume loop
intrinsic ability of heart to adapt to increasing volumes of inflowing blood is called?
Frank-Starling mechanism
end systolic volume AKA
L ventricular volume
what happens in the ventricular pressure-volume loop w/ increased afterload?
decrease in SV

decreased width of pressure-volume loop

and

increased end-systolic volume
what happens in the ventricular pressure-volume loop w/ increased contractility?
increased ventricular tension (isovolumetric contraction/relaxation)

and

decreased end-systolic volume
What's going on here?
check it out:

1. MV closes, S1, EDV
2. Aortic valve opens
3. Aortic vavle closes, S2, ESV
4. MV opens

1-->2-->3 systole
3-->4-->1 diastole
What is the best way to inc CO inc the force of contraction or inc preload
inc preload
why is the mean arterial pressure closer to diastolic pressure than systolic?
b/c only 1/3 of time is spent is systole while 2/3 is spent in diastole
Why does inc'd K+ cause decreased contractility?
the high [K+] in the ECF dec's the RMP
Why does inc'd Ca+ cause inc'd contractility?
b/c the huge amts of ECF Ca+ initiates the contractile process
parasympathetic has what type of effect chrono or inotropic
largely negative chronotropic
sympathetic has what effect chrono or inotropic
+ ino and chronotropic