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### 41 Cards in this Set

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 degree of muscle tension before contraction preload afterload AKA TPR preload AKA end diastolic volume SV equation SV= EDV-ESV EF % EF= EDV-ESV/EDV x 100 or EF= SV/EDV stroke work output x HR = ? minute work output CO normal value ~5L/min CO equation CO= HR x SV Can very high HR decrease CO? Why? yes ventricular filling time is decreased normal avg for Cardiac Index for adult ~3L/min/m2 max efficiency of heart 20-25% can the heart continue to function w/o the "pumping" ability of the atria? Why? Yes b/c the atrial contractions only account for ~20% of blood flow into ventricles EKG P wave represents atrial depol EKG QRS complex represents ventricle depol EKG T wave represents ventricle repol define congestion. Does this increase or decrease contractility of heart overload of the heart decrease diastasis AKA reduced ventricular filling (last 2/3 of diastole) ventricular filling continues at a slower rate (b/c of pressure in ventricle) during systole what is going on in the atria? why? blood accumulation AV valves closed is work being done during isovolumetric contraction/relaxation? No atrial pressure waves: a wave - c wave - v wave - a wave = atrial contraction c wave = begin ventricular contraction (slight backflow into atria v wave = end ventricular contraction (slow flow into atria while A-V valves closed) absolute limitation and regulator of how much blood the heart can pump? venous return how is blood distribution regulated? local control via vasodilation/constriction of arterioles which phase of cardiac cycle is most of stroke volume ejected? rapid ventricular ejection phase S1 represents which valves? A-V valves closing (mitral before tricuspid) S1 represents the beginning of which phase? isovolumetric ventricular contraction preload is EDV which is related to ___ ____ pressure R atrial S2 represents which valves? Semilunar (aortic/pulmonic) valves closing S2 represents the beginning of which phase? isovolumetric ventricular relaxation R= ? (think Poiseuille's Law) nl/r4 n= viscosity l= length r= radius what happens in the ventricular pressure-volume loop w/ increased preload? increase in SV and increased width of pressure-volume loop intrinsic ability of heart to adapt to increasing volumes of inflowing blood is called? Frank-Starling mechanism end systolic volume AKA L ventricular volume what happens in the ventricular pressure-volume loop w/ increased afterload? decrease in SV decreased width of pressure-volume loop and increased end-systolic volume what happens in the ventricular pressure-volume loop w/ increased contractility? increased ventricular tension (isovolumetric contraction/relaxation) and decreased end-systolic volume What's going on here? check it out: 1. MV closes, S1, EDV 2. Aortic valve opens 3. Aortic vavle closes, S2, ESV 4. MV opens 1-->2-->3 systole 3-->4-->1 diastole What is the best way to inc CO inc the force of contraction or inc preload inc preload why is the mean arterial pressure closer to diastolic pressure than systolic? b/c only 1/3 of time is spent is systole while 2/3 is spent in diastole Why does inc'd K+ cause decreased contractility? the high [K+] in the ECF dec's the RMP Why does inc'd Ca+ cause inc'd contractility? b/c the huge amts of ECF Ca+ initiates the contractile process parasympathetic has what type of effect chrono or inotropic largely negative chronotropic sympathetic has what effect chrono or inotropic + ino and chronotropic