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65 Cards in this Set

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corresponds to the time needed for the reopening of the channels that permit sodium and calcium influx
absolute refractory period
occurs at the end of repolarization
relative refractory period
a measure of time from the firing of the SA node until the electrical impulse reaches the AV node.
pr interval
represents all ventricular contraction/depolarization
qrs complex
will not be QRS no matter what
absolute refractory period
follows the absolute refractory period
relative refractory period
0.12-0.20 milliseconds
pr interval
The duration is normally between 0.08-0.12 milliseconds.
qrs complex
the property of generating spontaneous depolarization to threshold, enables the SA and AV nodes to generate cardiac action potentials without any stimulus
Automaticity
Cells capable of spontaneous depolarization
automatic cells
is mediated by tissue pressure receptors in the aorta and carotid
Baroreceptor reflex
volume/force relationship
Frank-Starling Law
· The amount of tension generated in the wall of the ventricle (or any chamber or vessel) to produce a given intraventricular pressure depends on the size (radius and wall thickness) of the ventricle.
Laplace’s Law
automatic cells
pacemaker cells
the volume of blood in the heart at the end of diastole (the length of the muscle fibers) is directly related to the force of contraction during the next systole
Frank-Starling Law
resistance to fluid flow through a tube takes into account the length of the tube, the viscosity of the fluid, and the radius of the tube’s lumen. Generally, resistance to flow is greater in longer tubes because resistance increases with length.
Poiseuille’s formula
impedance to ejection of blood from the left ventricle.
Afterload
The resistance the left ventricle must overcome to pump blood through the systemic circulation
Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)
Preload, systemic vascular resistance and myocardial contractility effect
stroke volume.
Amount of blood in liters moved by the heart in 1 minute.
Cardiac Output (CO)
The sound a stiff stenotic AV valve makes when it opens
Snap
the sound a stiff stenoic semilunar valve makes when it opens. Same as snap.
Click
Normal cardiac output
4-6 L/min
Listen to the patient’s history!!
eval of chest pain
the leading contributor to coronary artery disease
Atherosclerosis
CAD caused by atherosclerosis is the major cause of
myocardial ischemia
Serum should be tested for risk indicators, such as lipid profile and C-reactive protein.
Atherosclerosis
virtually any vascular disorder that narrows or occludes the coronary arteries.
coronary artery disease
feeling of choking
Angina
occurs when chronic coronary obstruction results in predictable chest pain.
Stable angina
is the result of reversible myocardial ischemia and is a harbinger of impending infarction.
Unstable angina
unpredictable chest pain that is a result of an abnormal vasospasm of coronary vessels
Prinzmetal Angina
diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or greater or a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or greater. is caused by increases in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, or both.
HTN
caused by increased cardiac output can be secondary to dysfunction of the aortic semilunar valve, any abnormal opening between heart chambers, thryotoxic crisis, Paget disease of the bone, and beriberi.
Isolated systolic hypertension
a systolic blood pressure decrease of at least 20 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure decrease of at least 10 mmHg within 3 minutes of standing up
orthostatic hypotension
atherosclerosis of the carotids, renal arteries, and of the peripheral arteries in the legs and arms (seen more in legs).
Peripheral arterial disease
gradually increasing obstruction to arterial blood flow to the legs caused by atherosclerosis in the iliofemoral vessels results in pain with ambulation
Intermittant claudication
which tends to occur in young men who are heavy cigarette smokers, is an inflammatory disease of the peripheral arteries.
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease)
Associated with radiation, rheumatoid arthritis, uremia, or coronary artery bypass graph. Fibrous scaring with occasional calcification of the pericardium causes the visceral and parietal pericardial layers to adhere, obliterating the pericardial cavity.
Constrictive/restrictive pericarditis
ejection fraction less then 50%
Cardiomyopathy
heart not contracting normally because dilated.
Dilated cardiomyopathy
an inherited disorder that results in thickening of the septal wall.
Asymmetrical septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
occurs because of increased resistance to ventricular ejection commonly seen in hypertension or in valvular Stenosis.
Hypertensive or valvular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
characterized by ventricular dilation and grossly impaired systolic function, leading to dilated heart failure.
Dilated cardiomyopathy
usually caused by an infiltrative disease of the myocardium, such as amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, or glycogen storage disease.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy
most common cause is ischemic heart disease or valvular heart disease.
Dilated cardiomyopathy
heart not pumping like should and blood backs up causing swelling
Right heart failure
the inability of the heart to adequately supply the body with blood-borne nutrients, despite adequate blood volume and normal or elevated myocardial contractility. Heart increases its output by the body’s metabolic needs are still not met. Severe anemia, septicemia, hypothyroidism, berry berry, graves.
High-output failure
the valve cusps fail to shut completely, permitting blood flow to continue even when the valve is supposed to be closed.
Valvular regurgitation
caused by a variety of disorders that affect the valve cusps and aortic root, such as rheumatic fever, bacterial endocarditis, syphilis, HTN, connective tissue disorders and atherosclerosis.
Aortic regurgitation
blood backs up into lungs causing shortness of breath; if bad enough backs up to other side of heart.
Left heart failure
inflammation of the endocardium.
Infective Endocarditis
6 weeks antibiotic therapy, valve replacement.
Infective Endocarditis
Can be caused by rheumatic heart disease. IV drug users can get, also can get from heart surgery and infection.
Infective Endocarditis
Caused by same organism that causes strep throat. If not treated then infection in valves.
Rheumatic heart disease:
a diffuse, inflammatory disease caused by a delayed immune response to infection by the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. If untreated, can cause scarring and deformity of cardiac structures, resulting in rheumatic heart disease.
Rheumatic fever
absence of a heart valve
Atresia
impairs the flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
Mitral stenosis
Caused most commonly by acute rheumatic fever or bacterial endocarditis.
Mitral stenosis
has three common causes: 1) inflammatory damage caused by rheumatic heart disease, 2) congenital malformation, and 3) degeneration thickening and calcification
Aortic stenosis
valves thicken and fuse together. Lumen smaller. Hard to push blood through
Valvular stenosis:
an autosomal recessive disease of childhood characterized by defective lacrimation, skin blotching, emotional instability, motor incoordination, total absence of pain sensation, and hyporeflexia.
Dysautonomia
a condition in which the anterior and posterior cusps in the mitral valve billow upward (prolapse) into the atrium during systole.
Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVP)
has a variety of causes. Most common are mitral valve prolapse and rheumatic heart disease.
Mitral regurgitation
more common than tricuspid stenosis and usually is associated with cardiac failure and dilation of the right ventricle secondary to high pressures in the pulmonary circulation.
Tricuspid regurgitation