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40 Cards in this Set

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What is it called when a hole is made in the aorta? What happens as a result?
Cardiac tamponade--blood accumulates in the pericardial sac
True/False: The peridcardium only covers the heart itself and no other structures.
False--it also covers the major arteries
What heart orientation is found in short, obese individuals? Pregnant women?
Horizontal--also horizontal and it returns to normal after pregnancy
What is the right atrial appendage and what does a sulcus separate it from?
Pouch of the right atrium separated from the RV by a sulcus
What separates the two ventricles?
Anterior interventricular groove
Where does the pulmonary artery run?
The great arteries cross each other anterior to the heart itself and the pulmonary artery comes from the RV and goes to the LEFT of the aorta and is the most anterior
Where do you listen for the aortic valve?
Listen to the RIGHT side of the chest and listen to the LEFT side of the chest for the pulmonary valve
What all converges to form the SVC?
L and R Subclavian and Jugular veins converge
What happens once the IVC crosses the diaphragm?
It has essentially converged with the heart
How many lobes are found in the lungs and how many veins drain from them?
3 lobes in the right lung and 2 in the left and 2 veins drain from both
What is the coronary sinus?
Vessel that divides the L atrium and L ventricle and BRINGS MOST OF THE CORONARY BLOOD INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM
Where are coronary arteries found?
On the epicardial surface
What are the first branches off of the aorta?
The coronary arteries
Where does the right coronary artery course?
Between the right atrial appendage and the RV through the R AV groove
Where does the left coronary artery course and what does it become?
Starts on the left side of the aorta and divides into the L anterior descending CA and the L circumflex artery
Where does the LAD artery course? What branches off of it?
Courses through the anterior interventricular sulcus and branches in the Septal branches that perfuse the septum and the diagonal branches the are on the free LV wall
What coronary artery causes the most MI's?
The LAD artery
Where does the Left circumflex coronary artery run?
It divides the left atrium from the left ventricle and runs in the L AV groove
What forms the posterior descending artery in most people and where does it run?
Terminal branch off the right coronary artery and it runs through the posterior interventricular septum
What muscles are found in the right atrial appendage?
The pectinate muscles
What is the fossa ovalis?
Fetal circulation is open because of the fossa ovalis and allows communication between the left and right sides of the heart
What is the coronary sinus osteum?
This is where the coronary sinus ends
What is the Eustachian valve?
Valve of IVC that not everybody has
What is the sometimes present valve of the coronary sinus?
The Thebesian valve
Where are the pectinate muscles found?
On the underside of the R atrial appendage
What is the crista terminalis?
Runs from SVC to IVC and is important in cardiac electrophys.
What is the place where valve leaflets attach called?
The annulus--to have proper valve function, the annulus must be of adequate size
What attaches into the annuluses?
The leaflets--the tricuspid has 3: septal, anterior, and posterior
What are the 4 structures found in all valves?
Annulus, leaflets, chordae tendinae, and papillary muscles
What attaches the leaflets to the papillary muscles?
the chordae tendinae
Which valve is an exception to the 4 element rule?
The pulmonary valve--has only 2 structures = the annulus and leaflets
What does the RV have that makes its valves different than the LV?
The conus arteriosus(crista supraventriculnaris) that causes a discontinuity between the tricuspid and pulmonary valves. The bicuspid and aortic valve are continuous due to the fibrous continuity between the anterior mitral leaflet and aortic valve
What is different about the papillary muscles of the LV verses the RV?
They are more developed due to the higher pressures
True/False: Both papillary muscles get chordae from the ANTERIOR leaflet, whel the posterior leaflet will only send chordae to one muscle or the other
TRUE
Which ventricle has a thicker wall? Thicker trabeculations? Always?
Left ventricle has a thicker wall but thinner trabceulations, except for heart failure patients, whose trabeculae become thick
True/False: The anterior leaflet of the mitral valve is part of both the inflow track and the outflow track
TRUE--due to the fibrous continuity
How many cusps does the aortic valve have and which has the fibrous continuity?
3 cusps and the
Posterior Non-Coronary Artery cusp
Which is bigger--tricuspid or pulmonary valve? Mitral or aortic?
Tricuspid--Mitral
What is the pacemaker of the heart?
The SA node!
Where is the conduction system found? Review the membraneous septum from the script...
In the endocardial surface