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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of drug is gemfibrozil?
What type of drug is clofibrate
What action does gemfibrozil have?
Lowers TG!!!! and VLDL!! Main function.

Can also slightly decrease LDL and slightly increase HDL.
What action does clofibrate have on lipid?
Lowers TG!!!! and VLDL!!! Main function.

Can also slightly decrease LDL and slightly increase HDL.
What is the drug of choice for type IV hyperlipidemia?
What is drug of choice for type III hyperlipidemia?
What is mode of action of ezetimibe?
localizes to brush border of small intestine and decreases cholesterol absorption!

This then increases LDL uptake into cells.
What is the side effect of ezetimibe?
increases liver function test (ALT/AST).
What is MOA of cholestyramine?
Inhibits bile acid reabsorption, so gets excreted in feces. Then more cholesterol used to replenish bile poool. **Can also be used to treat itching/pruritis during liver failure.
What is MOA of colestipol?
Inhibits bile acid reabsorption, so gets excreted in feces. Then more cholesterol used to replenish bile poool. **Can also be used to treat itching/pruritis during liver failure.
What is the effect of ezetimbie on lipid panel?
Lowers LDL

No change in HDL or TGs.

Can be associated with ALT/AST increase
What is effect of cholestyramine on lipid panel?
Lowers LDL

What is the major side effect of cholestyramine?

GI discomfort!!!

patients hate it!!!!
What is the mechanism of gemfibrozil?
Increases activity of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), a receptor which is involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, as well as adipose tissue differentiation. This increases synthesis of lipoprotein lipase therefore increasing clearance of triglycerides.
What is mechanism of fibrates?
Increases lipoprotein lipase to increase VLDL breakdown into IDL and LDL!!!!!!
What is MOA of niacin?
Inhibits VLDL secretion and synthesis from the liver cholesterol.
What effect does niacin have on lipid panel?
1) Decreases LDL
2) Decreases TG
3) Increases HDL significantly!
What is a common side effect of niacin?
Red, flushed face, which is decreased by aspiring.

What is MOA of lovastatin?
HMG-CoA redutase inhibitors.
what is effect of lovastatin on lipid panel??
1) Decreases LDL significantly
2) Increases HDL
3) Decreases TG.
What is major side effect of statins?
myositis, and rhabdomyolysis!! and reversible increase in LFTs!
What do you need to decrease HTN? Mechanisms please
1) Decrease Cardiac Ouput
2) Decrease Total Peripheral Resistance
3) Decrease blood volume (Decrease total body Na++)
Is hydrochlorothiazide an anti-hypertensive?
Yes, it decreases blood volume by lowering total body Na++

Hyper GLUC
Metabolic Alkalosis
Are loop diuretics anti-hypertensive?
Yes, they lower total body na++ and decrease blood volume.
What drug combination is contraindicated due to high incidence of rhabdomyolysis?
Concurrent use or statins and fibrates!!!!
What is the side effect of taking too much statins?
Higher risk of myalgias and myopathies. Can progress to rhabdomyolysis which can cause myoglobinuria and renal dysfunction!!!
What are the side effects of loop diuretics?
OTOTOXICITY: so contraindicated with aminoglycoside use


Sulfa allergy!!!

Can be used to treat HTN b/c decreases Total body Na+ and decreases blood volume.
How does clonidine work?
Binds to alpha-2-receptors in CNS!!!! This decreases NE release fromn nerve terminal: causes a decrease in sympathetic tone!!
What can clonidine be used for?
1) HTN: decrease
2) Opiate withdrawal symptoms such as tachycardia and hypertension!
What are two major side effects of clonidine?
1) rebound hypertension after discontinuation of drug
2) Dry mouth.
What is MOA of methyldopa?
Has exact same effect as clonidine: binds to alpha 2 receptors in CNS decreasing sympathetic response NE.
This drug blocks nicotonic receptors at autonomic ganglia, causing loss of sympathetic tone to blood vessels and decreasse in blood pressure?
Mechanism of hexamethonium please?
Blocks nicotonic receptors
Blocks at autonomic ganglia
Blocks sympathetic response on blood vessels
Decreases BP

Used in HTN especially in situations like dissecting aorta.
What is MOA of reserpine?
Prevents re-uptake of NE, 5-HT, and dopamine into nerve terminal. More in cytoplasm! So more broken down by MAO --> breaks down NE, 5-HT, DA.
Which drug blocks the movement of DA, 5-HT, NE from cytoplasm into nerve terminal and thus used to treat HTN?
What is MOA of guanethidine?
Prevents release of catecholamines. Used as anti-HTN medications.
What is MoA of prazosin?
Alpha-1-blocker, so deceases TPR. Used to treat hypertension!!!
What is the main side effect of prazosin?
1st dose orthostatic hypotension!!! So tell patient to take first at night while lying down so they dont fall.
What is the MOA of hydralazine? 1
works by cGMP increase, so causes more smooth muscle relaxation of arterioles>veins.

What is mechanism to treat CHF?
1) Increase CO
2) Decrease workload of heart.

=) Decrease TPR!!!
What is main effect of hydralazine?
What can hydralazine be used to treat?
1) CHF: because increase CO by decreasing TPR!

2) HTN: decreases TPR!
What is nitroprusside used for?
Malignatn Hypertension.
How does minoxidil work?
Vasodilator! so can be used in HTN, but can cause hypertrichosis, reflex tachy
What is action of nitroprusside?
It is a vasodilator!!!!!
What is side effect of nitroprusside?
Cyanide toxicity!
What are the side effects of ACE inhibitors?
Protein in urine!!
What is side effect of losartan?
fetal renal toxicity!!!!!
What is mode of action of nifedipine?
Blocks L-type calcium channels of both

CARDIAC and SMOOTH Muscle to reduce contractilyt.
What is MOA of verapamil?
Blocks L-type calcium channels of both

CARDIAC and SMOOTH Muscle to reduce contractilyt.
What is MOA of diltiazem?
Blocks L-type calcium channels of both

CARDIAC and SMOOTH Muscle to reduce contractilyt.
What drugs are better suited to treat arrythmias in terms of calcium blocking ability?
Verapamil > diltiazem
What drugs are better suited to treat vascular smooth muscle blockage of calcium/
This drug dilates by causing an increase in cGMP and smooth muscle relaxation!!! Dilate the veins >>> arteries
Nitroglycerin: decreases preload
What is MOA of hydralazine?
Vasodilates arteriolar smooth muscle!!

Can cause lupus like syndrome.
What is MOA of nitroprusside?
Release NO. It can be toxic at high concentratinons due to production of cyanide!
What is a toxicity associated with alpha-1 blocker/
First dose effect causing hypotension so recommend takin before slaaaaaaaaap.
What is MOA of calcium channel blocker?
Block calcium channels
1) Relax smooth muscle causing vasodilation
2) Increased myocardial oxygen supply.
3) Decrease muscle contractility.
How you treat prinzmetals angina?
Verpamil and Diltiazem.
What are side effects of verapamil?
gingival hyperplasia.
What are the effects of nitroglycerin?
Vasodilate smooth muscle by increasing cGMP: more blood to myocardium and also dilates veins!!! So decreasse preload.
What is nitroglycerin used to treat?
Pulmonary Edema. Angina!!!!
A patient is working and on Monday he has feelings of tachycardia, dizzines, and headache. What drug is he on?
What is the goal of antianginal therapy?
Reduce myocardial oxygen consumption:
1) Decrease HR
2) Decrease contractiliy
3) Decrease afterload (BP)
4) Decrease preload (decrease time of ejection): EDV
What drugs can be used to treat angina?
Nitrates (affect preload)

Beta-blockers: affect afterload

Nitrates + Beta blockers

Calcium channel blockers: verapamil similar to B-blocker in effect. Nifedipine similar to Nitrates. Nifedipine/Nitrates!
What effect does nitrates have on End diastolic volume?
Decreases: decreases preload
How do cardiac glycosides like digoxin work?
Block Na+/K+ ATPase

Increase intracellular Na+

Increase intracellular Ca++ (Na/Ca++ antiport not function), so more Ca++ inside celll.

What are side effects of digoxin?
blurry yellow vision
Arrythmias (Increased PR segment)
What is digoxin contraindicated in?
In hypokalemia!!! Because this potentiates digoxins effect!!!!!!
What is side effect of quinidine?
IA antiarrytmics so blocks Na+ channels. Cinchonism
What drugs cause torsades de pointes?

What drug causes reversible SLE like syndrome?
What is cinchonism?
Triad of headache, tinnitus, and thrombocytopenia.
What drug can cause cinchonism?
Triad of headache, tinnitus, and thrombocytopenia.

Which drug is useful to treat arrythmias after an MI?
Lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide.
This drug affects ischemic tissue?
This drug affects ischemic tissue?
This drug affects ischemic tissue?
How you treat digitalis induced arrythmias?
lidocaine, mexiletine
this drug is a proarrythmic especially if given post MI?

Flecainide, Encainide
This drug is contraindicated post MI?
Flecainide, Encainide.
Which are class II antiarrythmics?
What is side effect of sotalol?
torsades de pointes
What is side effect of bretylium
new arrythmias
What is side effect of amiodorane?
arrythmic causing pulmonary fibrosis and corneal deposits and hepatotoxicity!!! Hypothyroidism/Hyperthyroidism.
What drug can cause corneal deposits?
Name all the endocrine side effect of amiodorone?
What is lung effect of amiodorone?
pulmonary fibrosis
What tests must be checked when using amiodorone?
LFTs: liver function.

PFTs: pulmonary funciton

TFTs: thyroid function
What can be given to treat torsades de pointes?
What drug to treat digoxin toxicity?
What is 1st line drug to treat AV nodeal arrythmias?