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56 Cards in this Set

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The fluid that circulates through the heart & the blood vessels.
Blood
Pertaining to the heart.
Cardiac
The study of the heart
Cardiology
The system through which the nutrient fluids of the body circulate
Circulatory System
The process of clotting
Coagulation
A clot or other plug, usually part or all of a thrombus, brought by the blood from another vessel & forced into a smaller one, thus obstructing circulation.
Embolus
A protein formed in the blood which is related to the ability to resist infection
Gammas Globulin
The science concerned with blood & the blood-forming tissues
Hematology
The iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells. Composed of iron & protein. It is the oxygen carrying red pigment of the red blood cell.
Hemoglobin
The destruction of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid.
Hemolysis
A sex-linked hereditary blood disease in which blood fails to clot & abnormal bleeding occurs.
Hemophilia
Abnormal internal or external bleeding
Hemorrhage
Arrest of bleeding or of circulation
Hemostasis
State of equilibrium of the internal environment
Homeostasis
Pertaining to the outer part or surface of the body; part away from the center
Peripheral
Inflammation of a vein, especially in the veins of the lower limbs.
Phlebitis
Involving the lungs
Pulmonary
Pertaining to the whole body rather than to one of its parts
Systemic
A solid mass formed in the living heart or vessels from constituents of the blood; attached to the wall of the vessel.
Thrombus
Injection of the blood of one person into the blood vessels of another
Transfusion
Swollen, distended, & knotted veins, usually in the subcutaneous tissues of the leg
Varicose Veins
Narrowing of the caliber of blood vessels
Vasoconstriction
Widening of blood vessels
Vasodilation
1. Transports various substances to & from body cells such as O2, CO2, food, water, chemicals, hormones, & wastes.

2. Protects body against invading microorganisms.

3. Helps regulate body temperature

4. Maintains homeostasis

5. Transports waste products to excretory organs.
Functions of the Circulatory System
Pumps blood into the arteries
Heart
Carry blood to & from the heart, & thus carry oxygen & nutritive materials to the body & remove products of metabolism.
Blood Vessels
Forms blood cells & hemoglobin
Red Bone Marrow
Carry lymph & tissue fluid, help to filter the blood, & manufacture lymphocytes
Lymphatic Vessels & Nodes
1. Heart
2. Blood Vessels
3. Red Bone Marrow
4. Lymphatic Vessels & Nodes
5. Spleen
Organs of the Circulatory System
Forms lymphocytes & monocytes, stores blood cells, and filters out bacteria & worn-out red blood cells.
Spleen
Liquid part of blood which serves as a source of nutrition & a means of removing waste products from the body cells
Blood Plasma
Formed elements part of blood
Blood Cells:
- Red Blood Cells (RBC)
- White Blood Cells (WBC)
- Blood platelets
Blood Cells that transport respiratory gases: CO2 & O2
Red Blood Cells
RBC
Blood cells that ingest & digest foreign particles in blood, form antibodies, & release heparin which prevents intravascular clotting
White Blood Cells
WBC
Blood cells that initiate clotting
Blood Platelets
Red Bone Marrow:
- skull
- vertebrae
- ribs
- sternum
- proximal epiphysis of femur & humerus
Sites of the formation of Red Blood Cells
Rate of Red Blood Cell formation
RBCs are formed continually, millions every hour.
Life span of RBCs?
120 Days
Break apart or rupture in the capillaries of the liver and/or the spleen. Liver breaks down the fragments.

Can also be destroyed by normal stress:
- Mechanical destruction, as when taking blood from a vein.
- Hemolysis: Hypotonic solutions cause cells to rupture.
- Crenation: Hypertonic solutions cause cells to shrink & shrivel.
How are RBCs destroyed?
4.5 - 5.5 million/cubic milimeter
Lab Test -
Erythrocyte (RBC) count
The percentage count of total blood volume composed of RBC.
- male: 42-50%
- female: 40-48%
Lab Test -
Hematocrit count
The amount of hemoglobin expressed in grams per 100 milliliters of blood.

- male: 14-18 grams/100 ml
- female: 12-16 grams/100 ml
Lab Test -
Hemoglobin
Give information about the red cell production rate
Lab Test -
Reticulocyte count
Red minute, disk-shaped cells with central area thinner than the edges (concave)

Very Flexible & elastic

3,000 cells side-by-side are equal to 1 inch in length

Mature cells contain no nucleus; therefore, no further growth occurs
Characteristics of RBCs
Colorless, amoeboid-like cells

Nuclei vary in shape depending on the type of cell.
Characteristics of White Blood Cells
AKA white corpuscles
leukocytes
Neutrophils - 60-70% of all WBC
Lymphocytes - 20-30% of all WBC
Monocytes - trace amounts
Basophils - trace amounts
Eosinophils - trace amounts
Types of WBCs
1. Phagocytosis

2. Formation of antibodies by lymphocytes

3. Release of heparin by basophils
Functions of WBCs
WBC Site of Formation & Life Span
- Netrophils
- eosinophils
- basophils
- lymphocytes
- monocytes
Neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils
Red Bone Marrow

Lymphocytes
Lymph Nodes

Monocytes
cell lining the capillaries
in various organs, especially the spleen

Life Span
1-12 Days
Lab Test-
Leukocyte count
WBC count
5,000 - 10,000/ cubic millimeter

elevation usually indicates infection
or pathological condition
round or oval disk shaped cells that
initiate the clotting mechanism.

They are formed in the Red Bone Marrow

Their life span is 1 to 4 days
Platelets
Lab Test -
Platelet Count
200k to 500k/cubic millimeter
Unoxygenated: carried by veins and is purple or deep red

Oxygenated: carried by arteries and is bright red
Blood Color
Taste: slightly metalic & salty

Reaction: slightly alkeline, pH 7.35 - 7.45

Specific Gravity: 1.050 - 1.065
slightly heavier than water
Physical Characteristics of Blood
Varies with weight & sex of the individual
but average total is 5,000 - 5,500 cc. in
average plasma
Amount of blood in the body
- 45% cells, 55% plasma
- 78% water, 22% solids
Consistency of Blood
a. water: 90%

b. Solutes: 10%
-- Electrolytes: mineral salts
-- Nutrients: Glucose, amino acids, fats
-- Metabolic wastes: Urea, uric acid, creatinine, lactic acid
-- Respiratory gases: O2 & CO2
-- Regulatory substance: Hormones, enzymes
-- Protective substances: antibodies
Composition of blood plasma