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59 Cards in this Set

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Where is the location of the heart and what is it enclosed in?
It is located in the thorax and flanked laterally by the lungs.

It is coverd and enclosed by the pericardium.
What lines the four hollow chambers of the heart?
endocardium
what divides the heart logitudinally?
septum
True or false the heart functions as a double pump?
True
What does it mean when we say that the left side of the heart is the systemic pump?
It pumps the blood to the body tissues and R heart.
what do the valves prevent?
backflow of blood in the heart

Av prevents backflow to the atria venticles are contacting

Semilunar prevent backflow when to the ventricles when the heart is relaxing
what nourshes the myocardium of the heart?
coranary circulation
what arteries and veins of the heart?
Right and left coranary arteries and their branches

Drainage of the blood by the cardiac veins and the coronary sinus
How does the intrisic conduction affect the heart?
Increases the rate of heart contraction and ensures that the heart beats as a unit
WHat is known as the hearts pacemaker?
SA node
what is the cardiac cycle?
Th time and the vents that occur from one heart beat to the next
what cuases the lub dup that is heard uon auscultation?
The closing of the valves
What causes murmurs to be produced?
Faulty valves that reduce the fficiency of the heart tha result in abnormal heart sounds
What is cardiac output?
amount of blood that is pumped out by each of the venticles in 1 min HRxSV which is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle in 1 min.
What rises and falls with the volume of venous return?
Stroke Volume
What three things influence the HR?
Nerves of the autonomic NS
Drugs and other chemicals
ion levels in the blood
What blood vessels play a role in actual exhchanges with tissue cells
Capillaries
What are the three tunics that compose the blood vessels
TUNICA INTIMA FORMS A FRICTION REDUCING LINING
Tunica Media is the bulky middle layer of muscle and elastic tissue.
Tunica Exetrna is the protective outermost connective tisue layer.
and which blood vessel is not composed of three tunics and what are they composed of?
Capillaries

Tunica interna only
Why are the walls of the arteries thick and strong?
To with stand pressure fluctuations and expand and recoil as the heart beats
True or false?
The walls of the vein are thcker that the arteries?
False the vein walls are thnnier and the lumen is larger and are equipped with valves
why are the veins equipped with thin walls and valves?
they reflect the low pressure nature of the viens?
What are the two types of vessels in the capillary beds?
Vascualr shunt and true capillaries
What guards the entrance to the vessels of the capillar beds?
Precapillary sphincters
When the precapillary shunts are closed where does the blood go?
It bypasses the local area via the vascular shunt
Where do the exchanges with tissues occur?
Across the walls of the true capillaries
What is a common vascular problem that occurs in obese and those who stand for prolonged periods of time?
Varicose veins
How do vericose veins occur?
Incompetent valves in the vein
What is vericose veins a predisposing factor for?
Thrombophlebitis
All the major arteries of the systemic circulation branch from where?
The aorta
all of the major veins of the systenmic circulation converge on one of the ________.
Venae Cavae
All veins above the diaphragm drain into the
superior venae cavae
All the veins below the diaphragm drain into
inferior venae cavae
Where do the superior and inferior venae cavae enter into?
the R side of the heart
What forms the arterial circulation is formed by what pairs of carotid arteries?
Vertebral and internal carotid
What provides alternative routes of blood flow to the brain in the case that there is a blockage?
Circle of Willis
What circulation is formed by the veins that drain the digestive organs?
Hepatic portal circulation
Which blood vessel carries nutrient rich blood to the liver where it is processed before it is able to reenter the sytemic circulation?
Hepatic portal vein
Describe the fetal circulation?
A temporary circulation only in the fetus, consists primarily of three vessels
What does the single umbilical vein do?
Carries nutient and oxygen laden blood to the fetus from the placenta
What do the two umbilical arteries do?
Carry CO2 and waste laden blood from the fetus to the placenta
What is also present in the fetal circulation?
Shunts that bypass the liver and the lungs
what is described as the alternate expansion and recoil of a blood vessel wall that occurs as the heart beats?
Pulse
blood pressure is described as what?
The pressure that the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels
Is blood pressure high or low in the arteries?

Veins?

Capillaries?
High

Lowest

Lower than the arteries but not as low as the veins
True or False
Blood is sent along a acsending pressure gradient.
False; it is sent along a descensing pressure gradient
Which blood pressure is directly affected by heart activity and resitance of blood flow?
Arterial blood pressure
What are the most important factors increasing peripheral resistance?
decrease in the diameter or Stretchiness of the arterries and the arterioles
Increase in the blood viscosity
What factors affect the blood pressure?
Activity of sympaththetic nerves
kidneys
drugs
diet
With hypertension does the peripheral resitance increase or decrease?
increases
what does hypertension do to the heart and the blood vessels?
It puts excess stress on the heart and damages the blood vessels.
How do most substances move through the capillary walls?
Through diffusion directly through the fenestrations or intracellular clefts
How is the fluid forced back into the the blood stream?
by the blood pressure and is dawn back ino the blood by osmotic pressure
When does the heart begin to beat and pump in development
by the fourth week of embryonic development.
Half of all infant deaths resulting fron congenital problems are attributed to:
Congenital heart defects
Gradual loss of elasticity in the arteries leads to what conditions?
Hypertention and hypertensive heart DZ
Arteriosclerosis is expected wiht what process?
Aging
CAD and stroke are usually casued by:
clogging of the vessels with fatty substances
What measures can help to reverse artherosclerotic process and prolong life?
Diet Modifications(dec. fats cholesterol and salt)
smoking cessation
regular aerobic exercise