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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does decreased HDL affect CHD?
every 1% reduction in HDL decreases CHD risk 1-3%
How does change in LDL affect CHD?
1:1 ratio of increase/decrease
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
diabetes, tobacco use, hypertension, family history, dyslipidemia, age, multiple risk factors
What is metabolic syndrome?
interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that promote development of atherosclerotic CV disease
What defines obesity?
BMI >30
What defines overweight?
BMI 25-29.9
What is impaired fasting glucose?
fasting serum glucose between 100-125
What is impaired glucose tolerance?
glucose of 140-199 2 hours after 75g glucose load
What disorders are related to metabolic syndrome?
gout, polycystic ovarian syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
What things affect insulin resistance?
energy dense diet, genetic variation, age/gender, lack of physical activity, smoking, stress, neuroendocrine abnormalities, steroids, susceptible endocannabinoid system, drugs
What does insulin resistance cause?
altered FFA metabolism
hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia
What do increased cytokinse cause?
increased IL-6, TNF-alpha, decreased adiponectin, increased adipokines
insulin resistant milieu, proinflammatory state, prothrombotic state, prohypertensive state
How does dysfunctional/subcu fat affect the body?
impaired clearance and storage of TG in subcu fat, causes ectopic fat deposition
How do increased free fatty acids affect the liver?
increase trigylcerides, ApoB, VLDL
how does insulin resistance interact with hypertension?
altered renal sodium transport/sodium retention
increased sympathetic NS activity
ANG II activation leads to vasoconstriction and increased fibrosis of arteries and myocytes, suppresses normal adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin, stimulates inflammatory mediators, inhibits beta cell insulin release and reduces islet cell blood flow
high levels of aldosterone decrease insulin sensitivity
What are the increased risk factors wtih diabetes and CVD?
macrovascualr complications of diabetes cause heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular disease
microvascular complications: retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy
What does PPAR-gamma do to atherogenesis?
decreases vascular smooth muscle production of matrix metalloproteinases, downregulates Ang II receptors in VSMC, reduces BP, inhibits cytokine-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages, induces experession of CD36, stimualtes cholesterol efflux, reduces experession of CRP and PAI-1