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20 Cards in this Set

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what is the leading cuase of death in the western world?
atherosclerosis
does atheroclerosis start in childhood?>
yes
transition from teh fatty streak to teh fibrous plaque in atherosclerosis involves what?
smooth muscle cells laying down connective tissue (elastic fibers, collagen)
in atherosclerosis, what do platelets release? and what does this do?
Platelets release PDGF. This causes aggregation, thrombosis, and chemotaxis.
are platelets involved in all stages of atherosclerosis?
nope - not in the early stages. Only involved once endothelial cells are damaged
Are t-lymphocytes involved in all stages of the disease process?
yes.
T-lymphocytes are the "specific" immune response in atherosclerosis. What are the Ag's they are responding to?
oxidized LDL
what do T-lymphocytes release that are important in macrophage and SMC recruitment?
Interferon gamma
what are teh two types of Nitric oxide, and what are their roles?
eNOS (endothelial NO synthase): acts as a vasodilator & inhibits monocyte adhesion and platelet aggregation

iNOS: inducible NO synthase. Made by macrophages - destructive b/c it has oxidative properties
what is "diffuse atherosclerosis" caused by?
transplant rejection - systemic insult to endothelial cells
how could diabetes lead to endothelial damage (which in turn could encourage atherogenesis)
abnormal amounts of circulating glycated proteins which increase cytokine production and oxidative stress
what are some "non-conventional" risk factors that lead to atherogenesis?
-lipoprotein A
-infectious agents (chlamydia, herpes)
-oxidative stress
-depression (a/w platelet aggregation)
C reactive protein is made by?
the liver
what 2 conditions is CRP a/w?
diabetes type II, cardiovascular disase
3 reaons why CRP plays an impt role in atherogenesis
1. downregulates eNOS - decreased NO production and endothelial cell damage
2. triggers release of endothelin
3. acts as a chemoattractant to monocytes and helps them adhere to endothelial cells
4.
how is AII a RF for atherogenesis?
1. can initiate endothelial cell damage via its vasoconstriction effects
2. elicit production of ROS
3. upregulate adhesion mlcls on endothelial cells
what is CRP?
an acute phase protein
what is "laminar sheer stress" and how is it atheroprotective
inhibits proliferation, thrombosis and inflamm'n of a vessel

therefore, disturbed oscillatory flows are a/w atheroma formation
what is homocysteine
product of methionine metabolism; can produce free radicals which promote LDL oxidation
why is ageing a/w atherosclerosis?
increase free radicals as you age