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26 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
mitral valve prolapse
one or both flaps bulge backward into left atrium during systole = regurgitation (backflow)
causes ischemia = further dysfunction
mitral valve prolapse S&S
none
murmur, chest pain, palpitations, dizzy, syncope, fatigue, dyspnea
mitral valve prolapse diagnostic tests
echo
card cath
mitral valve prolapse complications
emboli
infective endocarditis
mitral valve prolapse interventions
none
beta blokers, antidysrhythmics, valvuloplasty, valve replacement
mitral regurgitation
incomplete closure of mitral valve leaflets, allows for backflow
causes increased blood volume
causes increased pressure in lft. atrium
lft ventricle compensates = failure
mitral regurgitation S&S
none
murmur, chest pain, palpitations, fatigue, exertional dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis
acute: pulmonary edema, shock
mitral regurgitation diagnostic tests
ECG
chest xray
echo
doppler ultrasound
TEE
cardiac MRI
cardiac cath
mitral regurgitation complications
emboli
heart failure
mitral regurgitation therapeutic interventions
none, antibiotic prophylaxis, ACEI, anticoagulants, vavluplasty, valve replacement
mitral stenosis
thickened mitral valve + shortened chorae tendinae = narrowed valve opening, less blood can leave
lft atrium enlarges, pressure increases
causes rt ventricle to dilate
rt venticle fails = decreased cardiac output
decreased cardiac output
fatigue
mitral stenosis S&S
none
murmur, chest pain, palpitations, fatigue, exertional dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis
mitral stenosis diagnostic test
ECG
chest x-ray
doppler
TEE
cariac cath
mitral stenosis complications
emboli
heart failure
mitral stenosis interventions
none
antibiotic prophylaxis
anticoagulants
PBV
valvuplasty
valve replacement
aortic stenosis
aortic valve does not open fully - difficult to move blood
causes lft ventricle to contract more forcefully
left ventricle hypertrophies
eventually decreased cardiac output and failure
aortic stenosis S &S
none
angina
murmur
syncope
HF
aortic stenosis diagnostic tests
ECG
chest x-ray
echo
cardiac cath
aortic stenosis complications
heart failure
aortic stenosis interventions
valve replacement
aortic regurgitation
aortic valve cusps allow backflow into lft ventricle
left ventricle blood volume increases
left ventricle hypertrophys
eventual left ventricle failure
aortic regurgitation S&S
none
forceful pulse, murmur, chest pain, palpitations, fatigue, exertional dyspnea, corrigan's pulse, diaphoresis
aortic regurgitation diagnostic tests
ECG
chest x-ray
echo
cardiac cath
aortic regurgitation complications
heart failure
aortic regurgitation interventions
antiobiotic prophylaxis, valve replacement, digitalis, diuretics, ACEI, nifedipine