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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_____ is the multi-system derangement that occurs when the heart is no longer able to eject blood delivered to it by the venous system.
Congestive Heart Failure
______ of congestive heart failure(CHF) is the inadequate cardiac ouput.
forward failure
____ of CHF is the increased congestion of the venous circulation.
backwards failure
____ will increase heart rate and contractility.
_______ is ventricular wall thickening without an increase in chamber size.
Concentric hypertrophy
Eccentric hypertrophy is an _____ in thickness and an increase in _____.
ventricular wall thickness and chamber size.
_____ is a dilated ventricle that is able to maintain CO at a level that meets the needs of the body.
Compensated heart failure
_____ is a failing myocardium that is no longer able to maintain a CO that meets the needs of the body.
decompensated heart failure
Name 4 causes of Left-sided heart failure.
1-systemic hypertension
2-ischemic heart disease
3-mitral or aortic valve disease
4-primary diseases of the myocardium
you will see ____, ___, and ____ in left sided heart failure.
pulmonary congestion, pumonary edema, and small alveolar space hamorrhage
Name 3 common causes of Right sided heart failure.
1-Left-sided heart failure
2-Pulmonary disease
3-congenital abnormalities
In right sided heart failure ou will see ____, ___, ____, _____, and ____.
1- congestion of abdominal viscera
2- soft tissue edema
3-pleural effusions
4-pericardial effusions
If you see a "nutmeg" liver, you can guess this patient has ___?
right sided heart failure
A patient presents with elevated troponin I and CK-MB. You can predict he has probably had a ______?
Myocardial Infarction
______ is caused by the narrowing of the lumina of the coronary artery by atherosclerosis.
Ischemic Heart Disease
Name 4 things that could be the result of ischemis heart disease.
1- angina pectoris
2- acute myocardial infarction
3- sudden cardiac death
4-chronic ischemic heart disease with congestive heart failure
What are 4 risk factors for ischemic heart disease?
1- HTN
2- diabetes mellitus
4-high levels of LDL cholesterol
____ is defined as 75% or greater reduction in the lumen of one or more coronary arteries.
critical stenosis
Coronary artery vasospasm causes _____.
temporary ischemia
Angina Pectoris is defined as _____ chest pain caused by transient, _____ myocardial ischemia.
intermittent, reversible
A fixed, critical stenosis causes _______.
typical or stable angina.
Variant angina is caused by coronary artery ______.
____ is another name for variant angina.
Unstable angina pectoris is caused by an ____. This is also known as Preinfarction angina.
acute plaque change
_____ is defined as the development of an area of myocardial necrosis caused by local ischemia.
Most MIs are caused by _____.
coronary artery thrombosis
Most MIs originate in the ____.
T or F: transmural infarcts involve most of the ventricular wall thickness.
____ involve the inner one third of the myocardium
Subendocardial infarcts
_____ is the seral marker that rises after a MI and remains elevated for days.
troponin I
Name 6 MI complications.
1-papillary muscle dysfunction
2-external rupture of infarct
3-mural thrombosis
4-acute periarditis
5-ventricular aneurysm
6-cardiac arrhythmias
Chronic ischemic heart disease is a consequence of ____ ischemic myocardial injury.
long term
HTN heart disease causes left ventricular ____.
______ is a disease of right sided heart chambers caused by pulmonary HTN in an individual with a history of HTN and all other causes of ventricular hypertrophy have been ruled out.
cor pulmonale
cor pulmonale is a disease of ____ side heart chambers.
Acute cor pulmonale is caused by pulmonary ____.
chronic cor pulmonale is most commonly caused by ____.
chronic obstructive lung disease
Deformed valves are more susceptible to ___?
Deformed valves may impose a major hemodynamic burden on the cardiac chambers by causing ____ or ____.
stenosis, incompetence (regurgitation)
_______ is an acute immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disease that follows group A strept pharyngitis after an interval of a few weeks.
Rheumatic fever
What is the peak incidence age for rheumatic fever?
5-15 years old
inflammatory infiltrates may occur in a ______ range of sites including the heart.
What will you see histologyically in rheumetic carditis?
Aschoff bodies.
Desribe an aschoff body.
it is a central focus of fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by a chronic mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and occasional macrophage.
T or F: you will see inflammatory changes in all three layers of the heart during acute rheumatic carditis.
True, in the pericardium, myocardium and endocardium
In verrucous endocarditis you wil see a(n) _______ deformity of one or more valves.
What valve is most often affected during Rheumatic endocarditis?
Mitral valve
What is the most common cause of aortic stenosis?
calcific aortic stenosis
Is calcific aortic stenosis of normal valves part of the aging process?
Desribe calcific aortic stenosis.
it is irregular Ca deposits behind the valve cusps.
What is the most frequent valvular lesion?
Mitral valve prolapse
T or F: Mitral valve prolapse occurs more frequently in young women.
In _______ you will hear systolic murmur with a midsystolic click.
mitral valve prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse can predispose you to _____.
infective endocarditis
Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis is the deposition of _____ small masses of ___, ___, and other blood.
Sterile, fibrin, platelets
Can nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis embolize?
yes it can
_______ is sterile vegetations that develop on cardiac valves of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Libman-Sacks endocarditis
Infective endocarditis os a bacterial or fungal infection of the _______, particularly the _____- surfaces.
endocardium, valvular (mitral)
What are the vegetations comprised of in infective endocarditis?
soft, friable vegetation of inflammatory cells and bacteria
What are 3 risk factors for infective enocarditis?
1- preexisting cardiac abnormalities (ie. alpha-hemolytic strep)
2- prosthetic heart valve
3- IV drug abuse
What are 2 complications of infective endocarditis?
1-distal embolization
2- Ring abscesses
Prosthetic valves are susceptible to mechanical deterioration and leaks. What are 3 other complications with these valves?
1- thrombi
2- infective endocarditis
3- hemolysis
______ is inflammation of the myocardium.
T or F: infection can cause myocarditis.
What are 5 immune-mediated rxns that can cause myocarditis.
1- postviral
2- poststreptococcal
3- SLE
4- drugs
5- Treatment rejection
Can giant cell myocarditis cause myocarditis? Can sarcoid?
yes, yes (WTF is sarcoid???)
____ is a primary abnormality of myocardium.
____ is the most common cardiomyopathy and is a progressive cardiac hypertrophy, dilation and mainly: contractile dysfunction.
Dilated cardiomyopathy
In dilated cardiomyopathy you will experience ______.
contractile dysfunction
______ is the hypertrophy of the ventricular wall, particularly the septum.
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
What is charcteristic of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
abnormal diastolic filling and left venricular outflow obstruction.
What heart problem do young athletes sometime die of?
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
________ is an infiltrate process within the myocardium that results in a decrease in ventricular compliance.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy
In restrictive cardiomyopathy you will see ________ diastolic filling and _______.
impaired, contractile dysfunction
The pressure on the left side of the heart is ____ than the pressure on the right.
A hole in the heart will cause a ____ to ____ shunt.
left to right, due to the pressure gradient.
What are 3 examples of left to right shunts.
1- ASD (atrial septal defect
2-VSD (ventricular septal defect)
3-PDA (Peyton ductus arteriosis)
Name 2 right to left shunts.
1-tetralogy of fallot (WTF?)
2- transposition of the great arteries.
Shunts are a form of ____.
congenital heart disease
T or F; Infants will do just fine at birth if they have a small left to right shunt.
Infants with small left to right shunts in their heart will experience _____ and _____ when they get older.
HTN and right ventricle hypertrophy
Late cyanosis secondary to pulmonary HTN is a result of ____.
left to right shunts
cyanosis at birth is seen with _____.
RIght to left shunts
T or F: cyanosis at birth is not compatible with life.
Name the 4 components of the tetralogy of fallot.
1- VSD(ventricular septal defect)
2- a dextraposed aortic root that overrides the VSD
3- right ventricular outflow obstruction
4-right ventricular hypertrophy
Coarctation of the aorta is an ______ lesion.
____ is inflammation os the pericardium.
describe 2 forms of pericarditis.
1- primary-viruses
2- secondary- acute MI, cardiac surgery, uremia, acute rheumatic fever
What is a pericardial effusion?
fluid accumulation
What causes pericardial effusions? (3)
1- serous(heart failure)
2- serosanguinous(blunt chest trauma)
3-chylous( lymphatic obstruction)
______ is pure blood in the pericardial sac.
hemopericardium, this leads to cardiac tamponade(heart cant expand anymore)
What are 2 cardiac tumors (primary neoplasms).
1- myxomas
2- cardiac rhabdomyomas
myxomas arise in the ___ atrium.
Cardiac rhabdomyomas are typically seen in _____ and ____.
infancy and childhood
Metastatic cardiac tumors typically come from ___ and ____.
lung and breast