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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ischemic heart disease
A lack of oxygen supply to the heart altering cardiac function.
infarct (ĭn′fărkt)
An area of tissue in an organ or part that undergoes necrosis following cessation of the blood supply. This may result from occlusion or stenosis of the supplying artery or, more rarely, from occlusion of the vein that drains the tissue.
stenosis (stĕ-nō′sĭs)
The constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice.
aortic stenosis
An impairment of blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta, as a result of aortic valve disease or obstructions just above or below the valve. Stenosis may occur congenitally or secondary to diseases that occur in adolescence or adulthood, such as rheumatic fever or fibrocalcific degeneration of the valve.
subaortic stenosis
A congenital constriction of the aortic tract below the aortic valves.
tricuspid stenosis
Narrowing of the opening to the tricuspid valve
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
A heart muscle disease of uncertain cause, marked by excessive and disorganized growth of myofibrils, impaired filling of the heart (diastolic dysfunction), a reduction in the size of ventricular cavities, and often, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Examination of the heart by echocardiography or other modalities may show the heart's enlargement to be most pronounced in the interventricular septum. Hypertrophy in that location may limit the flow of blood (and increase pressure gradients) from the left ventricle to the aorta. Abnormal anterior motion of the mitral valve during systole also may be found. These two findings are often designated on echocardiographic reports of patients with HCM by the following abbreviation: ASH-SAM (“asymmetric septal hypertrophy–systolic anterior motion” of the mitral valve).
restrictive cardiomyopathy
A disease of the heart muscle associated with lack of flexibility of the ventricular walls. Common causes include hemochromatosis, amyloidosis, and other diseases in which the heart is infiltrated by foreign material, or scarred.
cardiomyopathy (kăr″dē-ō-mī-ŏp′ă-thē) [″ + ″ + pathos, disease, suffering] (CMP)
Any disease that affects the heart muscle, diminishing cardiac performance.
dilation of the heart
Enlargement of the chambers of the heart, typically because of diseases of the heart valves or cardiomyopathy. It may result in ineffective ejection of blood into the aorta and secondary congestive heart failure.
idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC)
Heart muscle weakness of occult or uncertain cause, possibly due to viral infections, unrecognized toxic exposures, or a genetic predisposition, but not to ischemia, hypothyroidism, hypertension, valvular disease, or alcohol abuse.
preload (prē-lōd)
In cardiac physiology, the end-diastolic stretch of a heart muscle fiber. In the intact ventricle, this is approx. equal to the end-diastolic volume or pressure. At the bedside, preload is estimated by measuring the central venous pressure or the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.
In cardiac physiology, the forces that impede the flow of blood out of the heart. The heart contracts against a resistance primarily composed of the pressure in the peripheral vasculature, the compliance of the aorta, and the mass and viscosity of blood.
diastole (dī-ăs′tō-lē) [Gr. diastellein, to expand]
The period of cardiac muscle relaxation, alternating in the cardiac cycle with systole or contraction. During diastole, the cardiac muscle fibers lengthen and the chambers fill with blood.
systole (sĭs′tō-lē) [Gr., contraction]
Contraction of the chambers of the heart. The myocardial fibers shorten, making the chamber smaller and forcing blood out. In the cardiac cycle, atrial systole precedes ventricular systole, which pumps blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery.
decreased cardiac output
A state in which the blood pumped by the heart is inadequate to meet the metabolic demands of the body. (NOTE: In a hypermetabolic state, although cardiac output may be within normal range, it may still be inadequate to meet the needs of the body's tissues. Cardiac output and tissue perfusion are interrelated. When cardiac output is decreased, tissue perfusion problems will develop. Tissue perfusion also can be impaired when there is normal or high cardiac output, for example, in septic shock.)
pericardial rub
The scratchy. leathery, or rasping sound heard when inflamed visceral and parietal surfaces move over each other. The sound may be heard when listening to the heart sounds of patients with pericarditis.