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26 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Process of LV Pressure and LA Pressure during the Cardiac Cycle.
See Image
Reason for S1.
Closure of the AV Valves (i.e. mitral and tricuspid).
Reason for S2.
Closure of the Aortic & Pulmonic Valves.
TRUE/FALSE - The rise in ejection pressure during ventricular systole is a direct comparison of the ejection rate into the aorta to the rate of runoff from the aorta to aortic branches.
True
Describe the 2 phases of ventricular ejection during systole.
Maximum Ejection (II-III) and Reduced Ejection (III-IV)
Which heart sound is common in young normal individuals and in some pathological states due to the rapid inflow of blood into the ventricle during diastole?
S3
Describe S4.
In pathological conditions, atrial systole also produces a sound called the fourth heart sound,(S4).
Describe the Phases of Systole.
I-II = Isovolumic Contraction;
II-IV = Ejection phase
Describe the phases of Diastole.
IV-V protodiastolic phase;
V-VI = Isovolumic Relaxation;
VI- VIII = Rapid Filling Phase;
VIII-IX = atrial systole
The S2 heart sound has physiologic splitting in what phase of respiration (A then P)?
Inspiration
What are the 3 types of abnormal splitting in the S2 heart sound?
Wide; Fixed; Paradoxical
What are the 2 common causes of wide splitting in S2?
R bundle branch block; pulmonic stenosis
What is the common cause of fixed splitting in S2?
Atrial Septal Defect
What is the 2 common causes of paradoxical splitting in S2?
L Bundle Branch block; aortic stenosis
What are the 3 common causes of Accentuated S1?
1. shortened PR interval;
2. mild mitral stenosis;
3. High CO states/Tachycardia
What are the 4 common causes of Diminshed S1?
1. Lengthened PR;
2. Mitral regurgitation;
3. severe mitral stenosis;
4. Stiff LV (HTN)
What are the 3 types of Systolic Murmurs?
1. Ejection Type;
2. Pansystolic;
3. Late Systolic
Name 2 examples of ejection type systolic murmurs.
Aortic and Pulmonic Stenosis
Name 3 examples of pansystolic type systolic murmurs.
Mitral Regurgitation, Tricuspid Regurgitation, Ventricular Septal Defect
name an example of a Late Systolic Heart murmur.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Name the 3 types of diastolic heart murmurs.
Early Decresendo; Mid-Late; Prolonged Mid-Late
Give 2 Examples that can cause Early decresendo diastolic murmurs.
Aortic and Pulmonic Regurgitation
Give 2 examples that can cause mid-late diastolic murmurs.
Mild mitral or tricuspid stenosis.
Give 2 examples that can cause prolonged-mid late diastolic murmurs.
Severe mitral or tricuspid stenosis
A continous murmur is indicative of what condition?
patent ductus arteriosus (abnormal communication between the aorta and the pulmonary artery)
To-and-fro is indicative of what 2 conditions?
Aortic stenosis with regurgiation; pulmonic stenosis with regurgitation