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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sinus bradycardia is a heart rhythm that originates ... and has a rate of ....
from the sinus node, under 60bp
This rhythm may be caused by one of the following: (4)
* Increased vagal tone.
* Intrinsic disease of the SA node.
* An effect of drugs, such as the use of digitalis, beta-blockers, or quinidine.
* It could also be a normal finding in a healthy, well-conditioned person.
possible symptoms
lightheadedness, dizziness, hypotension, vertigo, and syncope.
The slow heart rate may also lead to ...
to atrial, junctional, or ventricular ectopic rhythms.
def. sinus tachy
a rate greater than 100 beats/min in an average adult
causes of sinus tachy
* Fever
* Anxiety
* Dehydration
* Malignant hyperthermia
* Hypovolemia with hypotension and shock
* Anemia
* Heart failure
* Hyperthyroidism
* Pheochromocytoma
* Sepsis
* Pulmonary embolism
* Acute coronary ischemia and myocardial infarction
* Chronic pulmonary disease
* Hypoxia
* Intake of nicotine, caffeine, or illicit drugs
what is the differance betweene a sinus rhythm and atrial fibrilation
In AF, the regular electrical impulses of the sinoatrial node are replaced by disorganized, rapid electrical impulses which result in irregular heart beats.
When a patient spontaneously alternates between AF and a normal rhythm, the condition is known as ....
paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
basic symptoms of atrial fibrilation: 3
symptoms of palpitations, fainting, chest pain, or even heart failure.
People with AF are often given ... such as ... to protect them from strokes.
anticoagulants, warfarin
Atrial fibrillation is said to be .... when it terminates spontaneously within 7 days, most commonly within ....
paroxysmal , 24 hours
Atrial fibrillation is usually accompanied by symptoms related to ... 2
either the rapid heart rate or embolization
atrial fibrilation can be acompanied by
angina and congestive symptoms of shortness of breath or edema.
Characteristic findings are (a "rhythm strip" of lead II is shown): 3
* absence of P waves
* unorganized electrical activity in their place
* irregularity of R-R interval due to irregular conduction of impulses to the ventricles
causes of atrial fibrilation
* Carbon monoxide poisoning
* High blood pressure
* Mitral stenosis (e.g. due to rheumatic heart disease or mitral valve prolapse)
* Mitral regurgitation
* Heart surgery
* Coronary artery disease
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
* Excessive alcohol consumption ("binge drinking" or "holiday heart syndrome")
* Hyperthyroidism
* Hyperstimulation of the vagus nerve, usually by having large meals ("binge eating")
* Lung pathology (such as pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, Sarcoidosis)
* Pericarditis
* Intense emotional turmoil
* Congenital heart disease
2 main goals of preventing atrial fibrilation
to prevent stroke and circulatory instability
Rate control methods include:
* Beta blockers
* Cardiac glycosides
* Calcium channel blockers
Beta blockers eg.
* Cardiac glycosides (i.e.
* Calcium channel blockers (i.e. 2
diltiazem or verapamil
amiodarone is used in the treatment of
ventricular fibulation, ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibulation
Amiodarone inhibits the action of the cytochrome P450 isozyme family. This reduces the clearance of many drugs, including the following: - 9
* Ciclosporin
* Digoxin
* Flecainide
* Procainamide
* Quinidine
* Sildenafil
* Simvastatin
* Theophylline
* Warfarin
main methods of treatment
rate control, rhythm controle and anticoagulation
trial fibrillation can usually be controlled with treatment. t/f?
does it become chrinic
usualy ):
Possible underlying causes of asystole include the Hs (7) and Ts. (6)
* Hypovolemia
* Hypoxia
* Hydrogen ions (Acidosis)
* Hypothermia
* Hyperkalemia or Hypokalemia
* Hypoglycemia
* Tablets or Toxins (Drug overdose)
* Cardiac Tamponade
* Tension pneumothorax
* Thrombosis (Myocardial infarction)
* Thrombosis (Pulmonary embolism)
* Trauma (Hypovolemia from blood loss)
Ventricular fibrillation is a ...?
medical emergancy
If the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds then what?