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45 Cards in this Set

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Normal cardiac output
5000 mL/minute
Normal stroke volume
70 mL/stroke (contraction)
Cardiac output can increase _____ times during exercise, as a result of increases in _____ and _____
five

heart rate

stroke volume
three layers of the heart
Endocardium - innermost layer, endothelial tissue that lines the inner chambers and the heart valves.

Myocardium - middle layer, striated muscle fibers that form interlaced bundles, this is the actual contracting muscle of the heart.

Epicardium (aka visceral pericardium) - covers the outer surface of the heart, adheres closely to the heart and to the first several centimeters of the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Endocardium
Endocardium - innermost layer of the heart, endothelial tissue that lines the inner chambers and the heart valves
Myocardium
Myocardium - middle layer of the heart, striated muscle fibers that form interlaced bundles, this is the actual contracting muscle of the heart.
Epicardium
Epicardium (aka visceral pericardium) - covers the outer surface of the heart, adheres closely to the heart and to the first several centimeters of the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Epicardium is also known as _____ _____
visceral pericardium
The pericardium _____ the _____ _____; is a _______________. Attached anteriorly to the _____, posteriorly to the _____ _____, and inferiorly to the _____.
Encases the visceral pericardium (epicardium); is a tough, loose-fitting, fibrous outer membrane that is attached anteriorly to the lower half of the sternum, posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae and inferiorly to the diaphragm.
Pericardial space
space between the pericardium (tough, loose-fitting, fibrous outer membrane) and the visceral pericardium (aka epicardium) (covers the outer surface of the heart, adheres closely to the heart)
Pericardial space holds _____ mL of pericardial fluid.
5 to 20 mL
Cardiac tamponade is _____ and it _____ the filling of the ventricles.
excessive fluid accumulation

diminish
Regurgitant/insufficient valves are _____.
leaky
Stiff heart valves are _____ and they cannot _____ _____.
"stenotic"

open completely.
Between the pericardium and the visceral pericardium (epicardium) is the _____ _____.
pericardial space
RIGHT atrium of the heart: Receives __________ from the __________ and __________. Blood passes to the __________.
receives deoxygenated systemic blood

from the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava

blood passes to the right ventricle
LEFT atrium of the heart: Receives __________ from the __________. Blood passes to the __________.
Receives oxygenated blood

from the lungs

Blood passes to the left ventricle
RIGHT ventricle of the heart: Receives blood from the __________ via the __________. Pumps blood to the __________.
receives blood from the right atrium VIA the tricuspid valve

pumps blood to the pulmonary circulation
LEFT ventricle of the heart: Receives blood from the __________ via the __________. Pumps blood to the __________.
receives blood from the left atrium VIA the bicuspid valve

pumps blood to the systemic circulation
The heart consists of 4 chambers: _____, _____, _____, and _____.
The heart consists of 4 chambers: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
Right atrium receives blood from _____ and _____.
Right atrium receives blood from superior and inferior vena cava.
Blood flows from right atrium, across _____ valve, into _____.
Blood flows from right atrium, across tricuspid valve, into right ventricle.
Muscle of _____ ventricle is not as thick as _____ ventricle.
Muscle of right ventricle is not as thick as left ventricle.
Blood enters _____ from right ventricle. Backflow prevented by _____ valve.
Blood enters pulmonary artery from right ventricle. Backflow prevented by semilunar pulmonic valve.
Blood returns to heart from lungs via _____ that enter _____ atrium.
Blood returns to heart from lungs via 4 pulmonary veins that enter left atrium.
Blood flows from left atrium, across _____ valve, into _____.
Blood flows from left atrium, across mitral valve, into left ventricle.
_____ has a thick muscular wall and generates high pressures during contraction.
Left ventricle has a thick muscular wall / generate high pressures during contraction.
Blood from left ventricle is ejected across _____ valve, into _____.
Blood from left ventricle is ejected across aortic valve, into aorta.
Atrioventricular AV valves are _____ and _____ valves.
Atrioventricular AV valves are tricuspid and mitral valves.
Semilunar valves are _____ and _____ valves.
Semilunar valves are pulmonic and aortic valves.
_____ receive blood from veins and store it prior to each contraction.
Atria receive blood from veins and store it prior to each contraction (heart beat).
Right atrium receives blood from main body veins called _____.
Right atrium receives blood from main body veins called "vena cava"
Superior vena cava (SVC) carries blood from _____, _____, and _____.
Superior vena cava (SVC) carries blood from head, upper chest and arms.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) carries blood from _____. _____, and _____.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) carries blood from lower chest, abdomen and legs.
Left atrium receives blood from lungs via 4 separate _____.
Left atrium receives blood from lungs via 4 separate pulmonary veins.
Systole refers to a period of _____ by heart muscle.
Systole refers to a period of contraction by heart muscle.
Diastole refers to a period of _____ by heart muscle.
Diastole refers to a period of relaxation by heart muscle.
Both atria _____ and push stored blood across _____ valves into _____, to help fill them.
Both atria contract and push stored blood across AV valves into ventricles, to help fill them.
_____ valve is located between left atrium and left ventricle.
Mitral valve located between left atrium and left ventricle.
_____ valve is between right atrium and right ventricle.
Tricuspid valve is between right atrium and right ventricle.
Atrial systole: Both _____ contract and push stored blood across _____ valves into _____, to help fill them; this reduces the volume of _____ and _____ pressure.
Atrial systole: Both atria contract and push stored blood across AV (mitral and tricuspid) valves into ventricles, to help fill them; this reduces the volume of atria and increases pressure.
After atria contracts, _____ begin to contract.
After atria contracts, ventricles begin to contract.
When pressure in ventricles increases, blood is forced against _____ valves.
When pressure in ventricles increases, blood is forced against AV valves.
During ventricular contraction (systole), the AV valves _____ to prevent backflow → _____ heart sound. This _____ pressure in the ventricles.
During ventricular contraction (systole), the AV valves _____ to prevent backflow → _____ heart sound. This decreases pressure in the ventricles.
Blood is ejected into arteries through _____ and _____ valves.
Blood is ejected into arteries through aortic and pulmonary (semilunar) valves.