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40 Cards in this Set

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Abdomen
- The region of the body that conatinsmuch of the diegestive tract and sometimes part of the reproductive system; in insects, the region behind the thorax
Albumen
- Protein rich portion of the amniotes egg
- When broken down creates large amount of metabolic water
- Nutrient and water supply for embryo
Allantois
- The place for waste products from the embryo inside the egg
- Nitrogenous wastes: urea, uric acid
Amnion
- Fluid filled sack inside the amniote egg
- Where the embryo is located
Amniotes
- Amniote egg, which allows them to lay eggs on land instead of returning to the marine environment
- Embryo develops in fluid filled sack the amnion
Amphibia
- Anura, Urodela, Gynophonia
- Skin is the major site of gas exchange, most have moist skin restricting them to aquatic or humid terrestrial habitats
- Many include larval and adult life stages
Antheridia
- Gametangia that sperm is formed in
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
- Fungi with symbiotic associations with plant roots
- Colonize the roots of plants and proliferate in the soil around the plants, hyphae penetrate through cell walls and branch repeatedly to form arbuscles (little trees)
- Fungus obtains sugars from the plant and in return provides the plant with a steady suppy of dissolved minerals that it has obtained from the surrounding soil
- Leaven bread and produce ethanol in alcoholic beverages
- Form mycorrhizas in lichens
Archegonium
- Gametangia that bryophyte eggs are formed in
- Flask shaped structure that shelters eggs
Ascocarp
- A reproductive body of an ascomycota that contains asci
Ascomycota
- Hyphal body type fungi
- Sexual spores produced in sacs called asci
- Very numerous more than 30 000 identified species
- Have a dikaryotic life cycle
Ascus
- Saclike structures in which spores are formed in sexual reproduction, gives the name to the phylum Ascomycota
- Often enclosed in a fruiting body
Background extinction
- One of two types of extinctions that occur, the type of extinction where most types of extinctions occur
- Based on a rate of extinction for species for most species the average is about 10 million years
Basidium
- Basidium is a small club shaped structure in which sexual spores of the basidiomycetes arise
Basidyomycota
- 24 000 species of fungi in this phylum, common name is club fungi
- Hyphal body type
- Sexual spores form in basidia of a prominent fruiting body e.g. mushrooms
- Some degrade woody plant debris, some of the same species are carnivorous
- Form mycorrhizas with roots of forest trees
- Some produce very deadly toxins
- Can be dikaryotic
Carboniferous period
- Dominated by large vascular seedless plants which were abundant in lignin
- Buried remains of these plants became compressed and fossilized forming much of the worlds coal reserves
Chorion
- In an amniote egg, an extraembyronic membrane that surrounds the embryo and yolk sac completely and exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment; becomes part of the placenta in mammals.
Clitellum
- Used in annelid reproduction
- Modification of a section of body wall consisting of glandular thickening near the gonopores
- During copulation secretes mucus that keeps worms paired while sperm are being exchanged
- Secretes a viscid sac in which the eggs are deposited
Coal forests
- Name used for large wetland carboniferous and Permian forests that later accumulated large deposits of peat and later changed into coal
Complete metamorphosis
- Most insects undergo this type of metamorphosis the larva that hatches from the egg differs greatly from the adult
- Larva and adults occupy different habitats and consume different food
- Larvae are often worm shaped with chewing mouthparts
- Larvae will grow and moult several times before transforming into the sexually mature morphology
Cuticle
- An outer waxy layer that prevents water loss from plant tissues
- Or the exoskeleton of insects that give strength stability and waterproofing
Dikaryotic
- The life stage in certain fungi in which a cell contains two genetically distinct haploid nuclei
Ectomycorrhiyzal fungi
- A mycorrhiza that grows between and around the young roots of trees and shrubs but does not enter the root cells
Epicuticle
- Water proofing portion of the insect exoskeleton
- Made out of waxes (lipids)
- Lack insect
Exoskeleton
- A hard external covering of an animal’s body that blocks the passage of water and provides support and protection
- Made from a epi and procuticle
- Chitin and glycoproteins form procuticle and waxes form epicuticle
Flood basalts
- When continental plates drift over mantle plumes and the earth melts and basalt lava floods out
- E.g. Iceland lava flows out of the mantle and floods across the ocean floor or on land
- Lava floods can be the size of continents and result in dust and debris that enter the atmosphere and cloud the sun
- Causes a loss in primary productivity and an increase in carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide
Gametophyte
- An individual of the haploid generation produced when a spore germinates and grows directly by mitotic divisions in organisms that undergo alternation of generations.
Gas hydrates
- Methane gas that is solidified due to water pressure and temperature return to a gas state and are released into the atmosphere
- Decreased pressure or falling ocean levels or increased water temperature could cause this release of methane
- Causes mass extinction
Gymnosperm
- A seed plant that produces naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary (fruit)
- First seen in the Devonian period
Head
- Anterior most part of the body containing the brain, sensory structures, and feeding aparatus
Hermaphrodite
- Organism that contains the mechanism in which both mature egg-producing and mature sperm-producing tissue are present in the same individual.
Heterosporous
- Organisms that produce two types of spores
- Male microspores and female megaspores
Homosporous
- Producing only one type of spore
Hydrostatic skeleton
- A structure consisting of muscles and fluid that, by themselves, provide support for the animal or part of the animal; no rigid support, such as a bone, is involved.
Hyphae
- The threadlike filaments that form the mycelium of a fungus
- These fine filaments spread through whatever substrate the fungus is growing in forming a network (mycelium)
- Tubes of cytoplasm surrounded by cell walls of chitin
- Grow and exert mechanical force which allows them to push through their substrate, release enzymes and absorb nutrients as they go
Karyogamy
- Nuclear fusion of recently combined haploid cells that are sexually compatible
Larva
- A sexually immature stage in the life cycle of many animals that is morphologically distinct from the adult
Lichen
- A compound organism formed by an association between a fungus (ascomycete or basidiomycete called a mycobiont) and a green alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont).
- Secrete acids that eat away at rock breaking it down and converting it to soil
- 13500 different speices many reproduce asexually by fragmentations called soredia
Lignin
- A tough intert polymer that strengthens the secondary walls of various plant cells and thus helps vascular plants grow taller and stay erect on land
Lignase
- Enzyme produced by some bacidiomycetes fungi to decompose woody plant debris