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30 Cards in this Set

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What elements do carbohydrates contain?
Carbon
Hyrdrogen
Oxygen
How do plants make carbohydrates?
Photosynthesis
What does the term sugar describe?
Monosaccharides
Disaccarides
Monosaccharides include....
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Monosaccharides are linked but what bond?
Glycosidic bonds
How are monosaccharides formed?
On condensation reactions
Disaccarides include.....
Maltose
Sucrose (cane sugar)
Lactose (milk sugar)
What are disaccarides?
2 monosaccharides linked together.
What is starch used for in plants?
Storage
What does cellulose do?
Gives strength to plant cell walls.
How many carbons does glucose have?
6, it is a hexose.
Formula - C H O
What is a 'reducing sugar'?
Some sugars can reduce other chemicals.
Sugar can donate electrons to other substances.
What is used in testing for reducing sugar?
Benedict's solution
What colour is the precipitate if reducing sugar is present?
Orange/red
Which are reducing sugars?
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Maltose
Lactose
Which is not a reducing sugar?
Sucorse
What is sucrose a bond of?
1 molecule of glucose +
1 molecule of fructose
What is lactose a bond of?
Glucose + galactose
(disaccharide)
What is maltose a bond of?
2 glucose molecules
What is the single largest provider of energy?
Starch
Starch has 3 properties necessary for storage compounds ..........
Compact
Insoluble
Readily accessible when needed.
Starch is a mixture of which 2 compounds?
Amylose
Amlyopectin.
What is glycogen?
The main storage carbohydrate in humans.
Where is glycogen stored in humans?
The liver and muscles.
What happens when the glyogen stores run out in humans?
Lipid stores are used.
What is cellulose?
Polysaccharide.
Gives strength and rigidity to plant cell walls.
Humans can not digest?
Cellulose.
What enzyme is needed to digest cellulose?
Cellulase.
Individual cellulose molecules are long unbranched chains containing many ....
glycosidic linkages.
What are the strong bundles of chains called in cellulose?
Microfibrils.