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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What are the two simple sugars?
Monoscharrides and Dissacharides
one and two in scientific terms
What are the 3 types of monosaccharides?
glucose, galactose, fructose
G
G
F
What are the 3 dissacharides?
maltose, lactose, sucrose
M
L
S
What 2 dissacharides make up maltose?
glucose + glucose
·G + G = M
·the same monosaccharides
What 2 disaccharides make up lactose
galactose + glucose
G + G = M
What 2 dissacharides make up sucrose?
glucose + fructose
G + F = S
Which dissachride is most present in foods (such as fruits) and plants?
sucrose
What are the three types of complex Carboyhydrates?
Starch, glycogen, cellulose
Describe the branches of a starch.
linked in long, glucose branched, chains
Describe the branches of glyogen.
chains are longer than starch and highly branched
Where is glucose stored?
in the liver and muscles
What are the properties of fiber? (5)
cholesterol, fiber, minerals, toxins, waters
C
F
M
T
W
Is there an RDA for fiber intake?
No.
Describe enzymes characteristics (4).
·Proetein catalysts
·specificity - very high substrate
·cannot absorbe enzymes or proteins
·no biological benefits
Where does carbohydrate digestion begin?
the mouth
What are the two simple sugars?
Monoscharrides and Dissacharides
one and two in scientific terms
What are the 3 types of monosaccharides?
glucose, galactose, fructose
G
G
F
What are the 3 dissacharides?
maltose, lactose, sucrose
M
L
S
What 2 dissacharides make up maltose?
glucose + glucose
·G + G = M
·the same monosaccharides
What 2 disaccharides make up lactose
galactose + glucose
G + G = M
What 2 dissacharides make up sucrose?
glucose + fructose
G + F = S
Which dissachride is most present in foods (such as fruits) and plants?
sucrose
What are the three types of complex Carbohydrates?
Starch, glycogen, cellulose
Describe the branches of a starch.
linked in long, glucose branched, chains
Describe the branches of glyogen.
chains are longer than starch and highly branched
Where is glucose stored?
in the liver and muscles
What are the properties of fiber? (5)
cholesterol, fiber, minerals, toxins, waters
Is there an RDA for fiber intake?
No.
Describe enzymes characteristics (4).
·Proetein catalysts
·specificity - very high substrate
·cannot absorbe enzymes or proteins
·no biological benefits
Where does carbohydrate digestion begin?
the mouth
If no carbohydrates are consumed and there are no glucose left, what happens?
Glycogen is released
What is the Kreb cycle suppose to make?
Acetylcoa
What type of food has the least amount of carbohydrates?
flesh food (Meat)
What is believed to be the better sweetener in the last 10 years?
fructose
not sugar
Why is sugar better than honey?
honey has less air and more carbs = more calories
Where did miling start?
in Britain
What are some drawbacks from miling?
causes loss of nutrients
What is hypoglycemia?
low blood sugar
Is hypoglycemia life threatening?
No. Hypoglycemia is the milder form
What happens when a person has hypoglycemia?
pancreas will oversecrete insulin, causing glucose to go down, which causes weakness and "giddery" feelings
What will elevate the blood for a person suffering from hypoglycemia?
cracker or candy, which will elevate the blood
What happens after no glycogen is released (since its all gone)?
exhaustion
What is the rare form of hypoglycemia?
spontaneous
What causes spontaneous hypoglycemia?
a tumor on pancreas
What happens the blood during a spontaneous hypoglycemia episode?
blood goes down and stays down
How can spontaneous hypoglycemia be treated?
by removing the tumor on the pancreas
What is hyperglycemia?
diabetes/high blood pressure
What are the two types of diabetes?
Juvenille and adult onset
What happens during Juvenille-onset diabetes?
the body stops making insulin, therefore the person becomes insulin dependent
What are the treatments for Juvenille-onset diabetes?
recieving insulin as needed
What age group does Juvenille-onset diabetes target?
young children/adolescences
About how many percent of the population does Juvenille-onset diabetes affect?
approximately 5%
What is adult-onset diabetes caused by?
excessive body fat
What happens to a persons pancreas who is suffering from Adult-onset ?
pancreases overscretes insulin
How does being overweight relate with the release of insulin?
more fat, more insulin released
How is Adult-onset diabetes treated?
when weight is loss
Is type II (adult-onset diabetes) genetic?
No, but weight is which correlates with diabetes
Does a person with diabetes have a normal life span?
yes, if the person takes care of themselves
What is a myth about getting diabetes?
Diabetes is the results of eating too much sugar
What happens to a person suffering for type II diabetes if the weight is not loss?
their conditions progress
What are diabetics at risk for if their diabetes is uncontrolled?
blindess, heart disease, stroke, peroferol vascular disease
What causes a diabetic person to be at risk for further illnesses?
prolonged high blood pressure